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Advent of Europeans – Portuguese

First European To Reach India

Advent of Europeans – Portuguese

On May 17th, 1498, Vascodagama discovered sea route to India and reached Calicut. He was received by Zamorin king of Calicut

Vasco Da  Gama

Image Credit: Wikipedia

Background,

In 1486, Diaz a Portuguese sailor started exploring sea route. He started journey from Lisbon and reached end point of Africa and named it as cape of storms. But optimist Portuguese empire renamed as cape of good hopes.




In 1492, Columbus started his journey from Spain which was sponsored  by Spain king. He Calculated approximate 15,000 km distance to touch Eastern land, But he accidentally touched land(US) with journey of 5,000 km.

Later, Amerigo Vespucci a Italian sailor was sent to conform American Continent. He told new Continents were present in the Earth world(Western Side), so with his name we calls Continents as South America and North America.

Vasco da gama reached Madagascar from cape of good hopes and reached Calicut with the help of Gujarat merchant present in Madagascar, thus new sea route was discovered. This route is called cape route.

By Suez route, distance from from Europe to India is reduced by 10,000 km.

Zamorin, King of Calicut welcomed  Vasco da gama, he purchased Black peeper and sold in Vince’s( Austria).

Portuguese were first to come India and last to leave India.

In 1500,a Portuguese company established to trade with India called as Estado Da India.

Some important Settlement of Portuguese in India

Kerala

Calicut

cochin

Cananoru

Maharashtra Coast 

Bombay

Salsetty

Bassein

Konkan Coast

Goa

Gujarat

Surat

Bhavanagar

Diu and Daman

Bengal

Hugli

Chittoganag

Satgoan

Governors of Portuguese 

First Governor, Francis De Almida (1504 – 09)

Second Governor, Albuquerque (1509 – 15)

In 1510, he conqurred Goa from Bijapur

In 1511, he Concluded a friendly treaty with Sri Krishna devaraya

Third Governor, Nino De Cunha

In 1530, he shifted capital from Cochin to Goa

He killed Gujarat king, Bahadrushah

Contribution to India

1   Portuguese introduced new crops in India

Tobacco

Maize

Green Chilles

2   In 1556, they setup first printing press in Goa

English Bible is first printed book in the world

In India, they printed St. Peter Charita in Marathi language

 They Promoted Christianity by Christian missionaries

Francis Xavier, Portuguese Evangelist converted 7 lakh people in Goa and Nagapatanam. His dead body persevered in Bom Jesus Basilica in Goa Church, its World Heritage site.

Decline of Portuguese  

Portuguese has monopoly over trade in India about 100 years.

In 1600’s Portuguese were defeated by Mughals, Marathas and other foreigners

Shahjahan captured all Bengal settlements of Portuguese

Maratha’s, Peeshwa Baji Rao I, caputured Sal Setty and Bassein in Maharasta



Portugues were left with only 3 settlements Goa, Diu and Daman. They maintained these 3 settlements till 1961.

Image credit : goaholidayguide.com

In 1961, Operation Vijay (military operation) , Portuguese forceably expelled and these areas were integrated into India

 

Thus Portuguese were First to come and Last to leave India.

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