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Who is who in India

Companies CEO/Chairman

International organization

International summits & conferences

National awards in India

International awards


Science and technology

Joint Military Action

Indian Scientific Organizations

Green Revolution India

Indian books and authors

Indian Ambassadors and High commissioners

World Beauty Pageants Awards

World Index Reports

Social Media


Political Parties

Maharatna Navratna Companies

General Science


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Constitutional Officials

President Of India – Ramnath Kovind (14th)

Vice President Of India – M Venkaiah Naidu (13th)

Chief Justice Of India – Justice Rajan Gogoi (46th)

Political Officials

Prime Minister Of India – Narendra Modi

Lok Sabha Speaker – Om Birla

Lok Sabha Deputy Speaker – M. Thambidurai (13 August 2014 to 25 May 2019)

Home Minister – Amith Shah

Opposite Leader In Lok Sabha – Vacant

Rajya Sabha Chairman – M Venkaiah Naidu (Vice President of India)

Rajya Sabha Deputy Chairman – Harivansh Narayan Singh

Opposite Leader in Rajya Sabha – Gulam Nabi Azad (Congress)

Lok Sabha Secretary – Snehalata Shrivastava

Rajya Sabha Secretary – Desh Deepak Verma


Army Chief General Bipin Rawat

Air Force ChiefAir Chief Marshal Birendra Singh Dhanona

Navy Chief – Admiral Karambir Singh

Integrated Defence Chief – Lt. Gen P. S. Rajeshwar

Border & Security Force, BSF Chief– Rajni Kant Mishra

Central Reserve Police Force, CRPF Chief – Rajiv Roy Bhatnagar

Central Industrial Security Force, CISF Chief – Rajesh Ranjan

National Investigation Agency, NIA Chief Yogesh Chandra Modi

Central Bureau Of Investigation, CBI Chief – Rishi Kumar Shukla

Intelligence Bureau, IB Chief – Arvind Kumar

Central Vigilance Commissioner, CVC Chief – K V Chowdary

Research & Analysis Wing, RAW Chief – Samant Goel

National Security Guard, NSG Chief – R C Tayal

Railway Protection Force, RPF Chief Arun Kumar

Indo Tibetan Border Police, ITBP Chief S. S. Deswal


NITI (National Institution for Transforming India) Aayog Chairman – Narendra Modi

NITI Aayog Vice-Chairman – Dr Rajiv Kumar

NITI Aayog CEO – Amitabh Kant

Chief Election Commissioner of India – Sunil Arora

Other Election Commissioners of India Sushil Chandra, Ashok Lavasa

National Statistical Commission, Chairman Radha Binoda Barma

National Human Rights Commission (NHRC) – HL Dattu

Law Commission of India, Chairman – Balbir Singh Chauhan

Competition Commission of India (CCI) – Ashok Kumar Gupta

Central Information Commission (CIC) Sudhir Bhargava

Confederation of Indian Industry (CII) Uday Kotak

National Commission for Women, Chairman Rekha Sharma

National Commission for Protection for Child Rights Stuti Narain Kacker

National Commission for SC, Chairman Ram Shankar Katheria

National Commission for ST, Chairman – Nanda Kumar Sai

National Commission for Minorities, Chairman Sayed Ghayorul Hasan Rizvi

National Consumer Disputes Redressal Commission, Chairman (NCDRC) R K Agarwal

University Grant Commission (UGC) Chairman  D P Singh

Union Public Service Commission (UPSC) Aravind Saxena

Atomic Energy Commission Kamlesh Nilkanth Vyas

Indian Space Research Organisation, ISRO Chief Kailasavadivoo Sivan

Defence Research & Development Organisation, DRDO Chief– Dr G. Satish Reddy

Baba Atomic Research Centre, BARC Chief – Ajit Kumar Mohanty

Prasar Bharati, Chairman – A Surya Prakash

Unique Identification Authority of India (UIDAI), Chairman – Ajay Bhushan Pandey


Finance Commission, Chairman (15th) – N K Singh

PM’s Economic Advisory Council, Chairman – Bibek Debroy

Reserve Bank of India, Governor (RBI) – Shaktikant Das

Deputy Governors of RBI V V Acharya, BP Kanungo S, Mahesh Kumar Jain, S Vishwanathan

Securities & Exchange Board of India (SEBI)- Ajay Tyagi

National Bank for Agricultural & Rural Development (NABARD) – Dr Harsha Kumar Banwala

Central Board of Direct Taxes (CBDT) Pramod Chandra Mody

Central Board of Indirect Taxes & Customs (CBIC)- Pranab Kumar Das

Telecom Regulator Authority of India (TRAI) Ram Sevak Sharma

Insurance Regulator Development Authority of India (IRDAI) Subash Chandra Kuntiya

Federation of Indian Chamber of Commerce & Industry (FICCI) – Sandip Somany (President), Dilip Chenoy (Secretary General)

Life Insurance Corporation (LIC) Chairman – M. R. Kumar

Pension Fund Regulatory Development Authority (PFRDA) Chairman – Hemanth Contractor

National Association of Software & Services Companies (NASSCOM), Chairman – Rishand Premji

NASSCOM President – Debjani Ghosh

Associated Chamber of Commerce & Industry of India (ASSOCHAM) Balakrishna Goenka (President), Uday Kumar Varma (Secretary General)

Small Industrial Development Bank of India (SIDBI) – Mahammed Mustafa

National Housing Bank (NHB) RV Verma


National Advisory Council (NAC), Chairman Sonia Gandhi

PM Economic Advisory Council (PMEAC), Chairman Bibek Debro

National Security Advisor – Ajit Doval

Cabinet Secretary of India Pradeep Kumar Sinha

Chief Secretary of President – Sanjay Kothari

Chief Secretary to Vice President – V. Subbarao

Principal Secretary to PM Nripendra Mishra

Home Secretary of India – Rajiv Guaba

Foreign Secretary of India Vijay Keshav Gokhale

Finance Secretary of India Rajiv Kumar

Defence Secretary of India Sanjay Mitra

Public Accounts Committee (PAC), Chairman Adhir Ranjan Chowdhury

Comptroller & Auditor General (CAG) Rajiv Mehrishi

Attorney General of India – KK Venugopal


International Cricket Council (ICC) – Shashank Manohar (Chairman), Manu Sawhney (CEO)

Indian Premier League (IPL), ChairmanSanjeev Churiwala

All India Tennis Association President – Praveen Mahajan

Indian Hockey Federation, President Mohammad Mushtaque Ahmad

FIFA President (FOOTBALL) – Gianni Infantino

International Olympic Committee, President Thomas Bach

Indian Olympic Committee, President Narinder Batra

Board of Control for Cricket in India (BCCI) C K Khanna (President), Rahul Johri (CEO), Radhey Shyam Julaniya (Secretary)

Companies CEO/ Chairman

Bharat Sanchar Nigam Limited (BSNL) Chairman – Anupam Shrivastava

General Insurance Corporation of India Chairman– Mrs. Alice Vaidyan

Indian Banks Association Chairman– Sunil Mehta

National Mineral Development Corporation (NMDC) Chairman– N. Biajendra Kumar

Railway Board, Chairman – Vinod Kumar Yadav

Press Trust of India (PTI) Chairman N. Ravi

Pepsico CEO Ramon Laguarta

Twitter Jack Dorsey (CEO)

Facebook CEO – Mark Zuckerberg (USA)

WhatsApp CEO – Abhijit Bose

Wipro CEO Abidali Neemuchawla

Nokia CEO Rajiv Suri

Infosys Salil S. Parekh (MD & CEO), N. R. Narayana Murthy(Chairman)

Airport Authority of India (AAI) – Dr Guruprasad Mohapatra

Air India Chairman Ashwani Lohani

Chiefs of Staff Committee (COSC) Birender Singh Dhanoa

Intellectual Property Appellate Board(IPAB) Chairman Justice Manmohan Singh

Central Board of Film Certification (CBFC) Chairman Prasoon Joshi

Council of Scientific & Industrial Research (CSIR) – Dr Shekhar Mande (Director General), Prime Minister (Chairman)

Forward Market Commission (FMC) Chairman – Ramesh Abhishek

Director-General of Civil Aviation – B S Bhullar

National Safety Council, Chairman K Satish Reddy

National Crime Records Bureau, Director – Ramphal Pawar

National Stock Exchange (NSE) – Ashok Chawla (Chairman), Vikram Limiye (MD & CEO)

Bombay Stock Exchange (BSE) – Sethu Ratnam Ravi

Indian Space Research Organization (ISRO) – K Shivan

Defence Research & Development Organization (DRDO) – G Satheesh Reddy

Hindustan Aeronautics Limited (HAL) R. Madhavan

National Aeronautics & Space Administration (NASA) – Charles Bolden

International Machines Business (IBM) Ginni Rometty

Microsoft CEO Satya Nadella

Indian Newspaper Association (ISN) Anand Mahindra

Film & Television Institute of India (FTII) Brijendra Pal Singh (President), Bhupendra Kainthola (Director)

National Hydroelectric Power Corporation (NHPC) Balraj Joshi

Press Council of India (PCI) Chandramauli Kumar Prasad

Payments Council of India (PCI) – Vishwas Patel


United Nations Organization
Head office: Newyork
Established: 26 June 1945
Since: 24 October 1945
Members: 193
Sec. General: Antonio Guterres (Portuguese)

UNO consists of The General Assembly, The Security Council, The Economic & Social Council, International Court of Justice, Trusteeship Council, Secretariat

The General Assembly
Head Office: New York
Members: All
President: Mrs. Maria Fernanda Espinosa (Equador)
The meeting will commence every year third Thursday of September

Security Council
Head Office: New York
Members: 15
President: Francisco Antonio Cortorreal
Five permanent and ten non- permanent members
Five permanent members = USA, UK, Russia, China, France

The Economic & Social Council
Head Office: New York
Members :
President: Ms. Inga Rhonda
Trusteeship Council
Head Office: New York

International Court of Justice
Head Office: The Hague (Netherlands)
President: Abdulqawi Ahmed Yusuf (Somalia)
Vice-President : Xue Hanqin (China)

Members : 15 Judges + 1 Chief Justice
15 Judges for 9 years & Chief Justice for 3 years
Note: Justice Dalveer Bhandari (India) also one of the member up to 2018

The Secretariat
Head Office : New York
President : Antonio Guterres (Portuguese)
UNO official languages are = 6 – France, Arabic, Chinese, English, Russian, Spanish (FACE Rs)

UNICEF (United Nations International Childrens Emergency Fund)
Headquarters: New York & Geneva
Established : 11 December 1946
Director : Henrietta H Fore

UNDP (United Nations Development Program)
Headquarters: New York
Established : 1965
Director : Achim Steiner (Brazil)

UN Women
Headquarters: New York
Established : 2 July 2010
Director : Phumzile Mlambo Ngcuka (South Africa)

World Bank
Headquarters: Washington DC, U S A
Established : July 1945
Motto : Working for a World Free of Poverty
Members : 189

ILO (International Labor Organization)
Headquarters: Geneva (Switzerland)
Established : 1919
Members : 187
CEO : Guy Rider (UK)

UNHCR (United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees)
The UNHCR has won two Nobel Peace Prizes, once in 1954 and again in 1981
Headquarters: Geneva (Switzerland)
Established : 14 December 1950
Director : Filippo Grandi (Italy)

WHO (World Health Organization)
World Health Day – April 7th
Head Office : Geneva (Switzerland)
Established : 7 April 1948
Members : 194
Director : Tedros Adhanon Ghebreyesus (Ethiopia)
WHO Good Will Ambassador for Physical Activity – Milka Singh (India)

UNCTAD (United Nations Conference on Trade & Development)
Headquarters: Geneva (Switzerland)
Established : 1964
Members : 194
Sec. General : Mukisha Kituyi (Kenya)

WTO (World Trade Organization)
Headquarters: Geneva
Established : 1 January 1995
Members : 164
Director : Roberto Azevedo (Brazil)

Head Office : Washington DC
Established : 7 July 1945
Members : 189
Director : Christine Lagarde (France)

FAO (Food & Agriculture Organization)
World Food Day – October 16th
Headquarters: Rome (Italy)
Established : 16 October 1945
Motto : Let there be bread
Members : 197
Director : Jose Graziano da Silva (Brazil)

IFAD (International Fund for Agricultural Development)
Headquarters: Rome (Italy)
Established : 1977
Members :
Director : Gilbert Houngbo

WIPO (World Intellectual Property Organization)
Headquarters: Geneva
Established : 14 July 1967
Members : 189
Director : Francis Gurry (Australia)

UNESCO (United Nations Educational Scientific & Cultural Organization)
Headquarters: Paris (France)
Established : 16 November 1945
Members : 195
Director : Audrey Azouly (France)

OECD (Organization for Economic Cooperation & Development)
Headquarters: Paris (France)
Established : 1960
Members : 35
Sec. General : Jose Angel Gurria (Mexico)

UNEP (United Nations Environment Programme)
World Environment Day – June 5th
Headquarters: Nairobi (Kenya)
Established : 5 June 1972
Members :
Director : Joyce Msuya (Kenya)

OPCW (Organization for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons)
The OPCW has won Nobel Peace Prize in 2013
Head Office : The Hague (Netherlands)
Established : 29 April 1997
Members : 193
CEO : Fernando Arias

European Union (EU)
Headquarters: Brussels (Belgium)
Established : 1999
Since : 2002
Members : 28
President : Jean-Claude Juncker

IAEA (International Atomic Energy Agency)
Headquarters: Vienna (Austria)
Established : 29 July 1957
Members : 168
Director : Yukiya Amano (Japan)

UNIDO (United Nations Industrial Development Organization)
Headquarters: Vienna (Austria)
Established : 1966
Members :
Director : Li Yoong (China)

African Union (AU)
Headquarters: Addis Ababa (Ethiopia)
Established : 9 July 2002
Motto : A United and Strong Africa
Members : 55
President : Paul Kagame

ICRC (International Committee of the Red Cross)
The ICRC has won three Nobel Peace Prizes in 1917, 1944 and 1963
Headquarters: Geneva (Switzerland)
Established : 17 February 1863
Founder : Henry Dunant (Switzerland)
President : Peter Maurer (Switzerland)

Asian Development Bank
Headquarters: Manila (Philippines)
Established : 19 December 1966
Motto : Fighting poverty in Asia and the Pacific
Members : 67
President : Takehiko Nakao (Japan)

New Development Bank (NDB)
The New Development Bank is a BRICS Development Bank
BRICS Countries
B – Brazil
R – Russia
I – India
C – China
S – South Africa
Established : July 2015
Headquarters: Shanghai (China)
Members : 5
President : K V Kamath (India)

Asian Infrastructure Investment Bank (AIIB)
Established : 16 January 2016
Headquarter: Beijing (China)
Members : 70
President : Jin Liqun (China)

International Solar Alliance (ISA)
Founded: 2015 (Paris – France)
Founders: Narendra Modi (India) & Francois Holllando (France)
Headquarters: Gurgaon – Haryana
Members : 121 countries (as of 2017)
Official Language: English
Head : H. E Upendar Tripathy (India)

International Maritime Organisation (IMO)
Formed : 1959
Headquarters: London (UK)
Members : 173 countries
Head : Kitac Lin (South Korea)

World Tourism Organization (WTO)
Formation: 1973
Headquarters: Madrid (Spain)
Members: 158
Head: Zurab Pololikashvili (Georgia)

World Customs Organization (WCO)
Formation: 26th July 1952
Headquarters: Brussels (Belgium)
Sec. General: Kunio Mikuriya (Japan)

International Renewable Energy Agency (IRENA)
Formation: 26th January 2009
Headquarters: Abu Dhabi (UAE)
Members: 153 + European Union
Director General: Adnan Z. Amin (Kenya)


Group – 8 (G – 8)
Established: 1975
G-8 Countries: Italy, Canada, Russia, USA, France, Japan, UK, Germany

44rd G – 7 Summit 2018
Place: Quebec (Canada)
Date: 8 – 9 June 2018
Note: Russia was suspended from G – 8 Group

45th G – 7 Summit 2019
Host Country: France
Date: 25 – 27 August 2019

Group – 20 (G – 20)
Established : 1999
G- 20 Countries : India, Indonesia, Italy, Turkey, Japan, Argentina, Mexico, South Africa, USA, Russia,
European Union, Brazil, UK, South Korea, Germany, Australia, Saudi Arabia, China, France, Canada
For 2017 (12th)
Hoct City: Hamburg (Germany)
Date : 7 – 8 July 2017
For 2018 (13th)
Hoct City: Buenos Aires (Argentina)
Date: 30 November 2018 – 1 December 2018
G – 20 Summit (14th) – 2019
Host Country: Japan
Date: 28 – 29 June 2019

BRICS is an association of five major emerging national economies
B – Brazil
R – Russia
I – India
C – China
S – South Africa
Established : 2010
For 2018 (10th):
Place : Johanneberg (South Africa),
Date: 25 – 27 July 2018
Theme : Co-operation for inclusive Growth & Sharing the benefits of fourth industrial revolution
BRICS Countries: Brazil, Russia, India, China, South Africa
11th BRICS Summit 2019
Host Country: Brazil
Date: 12 – 14 March 2019

Established : 2006
IBSA Countries: India, Brazil, South Africa
7th IBSA Summit 2017
Host City: South Africa
Date: 17 October 2017

SAARC (South Asian Association for Regional Co- operation)
Established : 1985
Head Office : Katmandu (Nepal)
Sec. General : Amjad Hussain B sial (Pakistan)
SAARC Countries: Maldives, Bangladesh, Bhutan, Sri Lanka, Pakistan, Afghanistan, India, Nepal
20th SAARC Summit 2019
Host Country: Sri Lanka
Date: 2019

ASEAN (Association of South East Asian Nations)
Established : 1967
Head Office : Jakarta (Indonesia)
Motto : One Vision, One Identity, One Community
Sec. General : Lee Luang Minh
ASEAN Countries: Vietnam, Laos, Singapore, Indonesia, Brunei, Cambodia, Malaysia, Myanmar, Thailand, Philippines
34th ASEAN Summit 2019
Host Country: Thailand
Date: April/May – 2019
35th ASEAN Summit 2019
Host Country: Thailand
Date: October/November 2019

APEC (Asia Pacific Economic Cooperation)
Established : 1989
Head Office : Singapore
Members : 21
APEC Countries: Australia, Brunei, Canada, Chile, China, Hong Kong, Indonesia, Japan, Malaysia, Mexico,
New Zealand, Papua, New Guinea, Peru, Philippines, Russia, Singapore, South Korea, Chinese Taipe, Thailand, USA, Vietnam
26th APEC Summit 2018
Host Country: Papua New Guinea
Date: 17 – 18 November 2018
27th APEC Summit – 2019
Host Country: Chile
Date: 16 – 17 November 2019

OPEC (Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries)
Established : 1960
Head Office : Vienna (Austria)
Members : 14 Countries
Sec. General : Mohammad Barkindo
OPEC Countries: Saudi Arabia, Kuwait, Iran, Nigeria, Libya, Algeria, Venezuela, Angola, Iraq, Qatar, UAE, Ecuador
2018 OPEC Summit
Host City: Vienna (Austria)
Date: 20 – 21 June 2018

NATO (North Atlantic Treaty Organization)
Established : 1949
Head Office : Brussels (Belgium)
Members : 29 countries
Sec. General : Jens Stoltenberg
NATO Summit – 2018
Host Country: Belgium
Date : 11 – 12 July 2018
NATO Summit – 2019
Host Country: UK
Date : 2019

ADB (Asian Development Bank)
Established : 1966
Head Office : Manila (Philippines)
Members : 67 countries
Motto : Fighting poverty in Asia and the Pacific
President : Takehiko Nakao
51st ADB Summit 2018
Host City: Manila (Philippines)
Date: 3 – 6 May 2018
52nd ADB Summit – 2019
Host Country: Fiji
Date: 1 – 5 May – 2019

Asian Infrastructure Investment Bank (AIIB) Annual Meeting
Established : 16 January 2016
Headquarter: Beijing (China)
Members : 87
President : Jin Liqun (China)
AIIB Annual Meeting – 2018
Place: Mumbai
Date: June 25 – 26, 2018
Theme: Mobilizing Finance for Infrastructure
Innovation & Collabaration AIIB Annual Meeting – 2019
Host Country: Luxumberg
Date: July – 2019

BIMSTEC (Bay of Bengal Initiative for Multi Sectorial Technical & Economic Co- operation)
Established : 6 June 1997
Head Office : Dhaka (Bangladesh)
BIMSTEC Countries: Myanmar, Bangladesh, Bhutan, Sri Lanka, Nepal, India, Thailand
16th BIMSTEC Summit 2018
Host City: Kathmandu (Nepal)
Date: 30 – 31 August 2018
17th BIMSTEC Summit – 2019
Host Country: Sri Lanka
Date: 2019

WEF (World Economic Forum)
Established : 1971
Head Office : Cologne (Switzerland)
Motto : Committed to improving the state of the world
Chairman : Klaus Schwab
WEF Annual Meeting – 2019
Host Country: Switzerland
Date: 22 – 25 January – 2019

Nuclear Security Summit
Established : 2010
4th Nuclear Security Summit 2016: Held in Washington DC (USA), March 31 – April 1, 2016

NAM (Non- Aligned Movement)
Established : 1961
Headquarters: Jakarta (Indonesia)
Members : 120
Sec. General : Nicolas Maduro (Venezula)
18th NAM Summit 2019
Host Country: Azerbaijan
Date: 2019

CHOGM (Commonwealth Heads of Government Meetings)
Established : 1949
25th CHOGM Summit 2018
Host Country: UK
Date: 19 – 20 April 2018
26th CHOGM Summit 2020
Host Country: Rwanda
Date: 2020

Indo- Africa Forum Summit
Established : 2008
4th India – Africa Forum Summit 2018
Host Country: New Delhi (India)
Date: 27 – 28 March 2018
Theme: India – Africa: Deepening the Security Engagement

Pravasi Bharatiya Diwas
January 9: Pravasi Bharatiya Diwas or Non – Resident Indian Day
Established: 2003
For 2019 : Varanasi from January 21 to 23
Chief Guest: Pravind Jugnauth, Prime Minister of Mauritius
Theme: Role of Indian Diaspora in Building a New India

Earth Summit
Established: 1972
Head Office: Rio de Janeiro (South Africa)
5th Earth Summit – 2012
Host Country: Brazil
Date: 2012

International Science Congress Association (ISCA)
Established : 1914
Headquarter : Kolkata
106th Indian Science Congress 2019
Place: Bhopal (Madhya Pradesh)
Date: 3 – 7 January 2019
Theme: Future India: Science & Technology

Earth Hour
Since: 2007, in Sydney (Australia)
For 2019:
March 30th 2019 Saturday, from 8:30 pm to 9:30 pm

Global Entrepreneurship Summit (GES)
For 2018 (9th)
Place : IIT Kharagpur, West Bengal
Date : 2 – 4 February 2018

Global Investors Summit
For 2018:
Place: Guhawati (Assam, India)
Date : 3 – 4 February 2018
Global Investors Summit – 2019
Place: Madhya Pradesh
Date: 23 – 24 February – 2019

Shanghai Cooperation Organisation (SCO)
Founded: 15 June 2001
Headquarters: Beijing – China
Members: 8 | China, India, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Pakistan, Russia, Tajikistan, Uzbekistan
Sec. General: Rashid Alimov (Tajikistan)
For 2018
Place : Dushanbe (Tajikistan)
Date : 11 – 12 October 2018
For 2019
Host Country: Bishek (Kyrgyzstan)

Global Climate Action Summit
For 2018
Place: California (USA)
Date: 12 – 14 September 2018
For 2019
Host Country: New York City (USA)
Date: 23 September – 2019
Theme: A Race We Can Win. A Race We Must Win

Nepal – India Think Tank Summit (NITTS)
Since: 2018
Held by: Asian Institute of Diplomacy & International Affairs (AIDIA) + Nehru Memorial Museum Library
For 2018 (1st)
Host City: Khatmand (Nepal)
Date: 31st July 2018

World Sustainable Development Summit (WSDS)
For 2019
Place: New Delhi (India)
Date: 11 – 13 February 2019
Theme: Attaining the 2030 Agenda: Delivering on Promise


Bharat Ratna
Since: 1954
1st Person: Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan, C Rajagopalachari, C V Raman
For 2019 :
Nanaji Deshmukh

Bhupen Hazarika
Pranab Mukherjee
Note: Download complete list of Bharat Ratna Awardees

Padma Awards
Padma Vibhushan:
Since: 1954
For 2019: Teejan Bai, Ismail Omar Guelleh, Anil Manibhai Naik, Balwant Moreshwar Purandare
Padma Bhushan:
Since: 1954
For 2019: 14 Members
Since: 1954
For 2019: 94 Members
Note: Download list of Padma Awards 2019

Param Vir Chakra
Since : 1947
1st Person: Major Somanath Sharma
For 1999: Vikram Batra

Maha vir Chakra
1st Person: Given to 6 Persons in 1947
For 2001: Gurjinder Suri Singh

Vir Chakra
Since : 1947
1st Person (1947): Nadikerianda Bheemaiah, R Kanikasamy
For 1999: B Muthana Caripapa, Chuni Lal

Ashoka Chakra
Since : 1952
1st Person: Suhas Biswas, Bachitter Singh, Narbahadur Thapa
For 2019: Nazir Ahmed Wani
Note: Download list of Ashoka Charkra Awards

Kirti Chakra
Since : 1952
1st Person: Capt Jogindra Singh Gharaya,
For 2019: Major Tushar Gauba

Shaurya Chakra
Since : 1952
For 2017: Given to 14 persons

International Gandhi Peace Prize
Since : 1995
1st Person : Julius Nyere (Tanzania)
Prize money : one crore rupees
For 2018: Yohei Sasakawa (Japan)

Indira Gandhi Peace Prize
Since : 1986
Location: New Delhi
For 1986: Parliamentarians for Globa Action (New York)
For 2018: Centre for Science and Environment (India)

Rajiv Gandhi National Sadbhavana Award
It is given on Rajiv Gandhi Birth anniversary August 20
August – 20: Sadbhavana Diwas
Prize money: 10, 00, 000/-
Since : 1992
1st Person : Jagan Nath Kaul in 1995
For 2018: Gopalakrishna Gandhi

Indira Gandhi Award for National Integration
Since : 1985
1st Person: Swami Ranganathananda, Smt. Aruna Asaf Ali
Prize Money: 5 lakh cash & a citation
For 2017: T. M. Krishna (Carnatic Singer)

Jawaharlal Nehru Award for International Understanding
Since : 1965
1st Person : U Thant
Prize money: 25, 00, 000/-
For 2009: Angela Merkel (Germany)

Rajiv Gandhi Khel Ratna
Since : 1991 – 92
Prize Money: 7. 5 Lakh + Medal + Certificate
1st Person : ViswanathAnandh (Chess)
For 2018: Virat Kohli (Cricket), Ms S Mirabhai Chanu (Weightlifter)

Dronacharya Award
Since : 1985
Prize Money: 5 Lakh + Certificate + Ceremonial Dress + Bronze Statuette of Dronacharya
1st Person : O M Nambiar (Athletics),Om Prakash Bhardwaj (Boxing), Balchandra Bhagwat (Wrestling)
For 2018:
Subedar Chenada Achaiah Kuttappa (Boxing)
Vijay Sharma (Weightlifting)
A Srinivasa Rao (Table Tennis)
Sukhdev Singh Pannu (Athletics)
Clarence Lobo (Hockey – Life Time)
Tarak Sinha (Cricket – Life Time)
Jiwan Kumar Sharma (Judo – Life Time)
V R Beedu (Athletics – Life Time)

Dhyan Chand Award
Since : 2002
Prize money: 5 Lakh + Statuette + Certificate+ Ceremonial dress
1st Person : Aparna Ghosh (Basket ball), Ashok Diwan (Hockey), Shahuraj Birajdar (Boxing)

For 2018 :
Bobby Aloysius (Athletics)
Bharat Kumar Chetri (Hockey)
Satyadev Prasad (Archery)
Chougale Dadu Dattatray (Wrestling)

Arjuna Awards
Since : 1961
Prize Money: 5 Lakh + Bronze statue of Arjuna + a scroll
1st Person : Givent to 18 persons in 1961
For 2018 :
Neeraj Chopra (Athletics)
Subedar Jinson Johnson (Athletics)
Hima Das (Athletics)
Nelakurti Sikki Reddy (Badminton)
Subedar Satish Kumar (Boxing)
Smriti Mandana (Cricket)
Shubhankar Sharma (Golf)
Manpreet Singh (Hockey)
Savita (Hockey)
Col. Ravi Rathore (Polo)
Rahi Sarnobat (Shooting)
Ankur Mittal (Shooting)
Shreyasi Singh (Shooting)
Manika Batra (Table Tennis)
G Sathiyan (Table Tennis)
Rohan Bopanna (Tennis)
Sumit (Wrestling)
Pooja Kadian (Wushu)
Ankur Dhama (Para – Athletics)
Manoj Sarkar (Para – Badminton)

Polly Umrigarh Award

International Cricketer of the Year Award
For 2017 – 18: Virat Kohli

ICC Cricket Hall of Fame:
Formation: 2 January 2009
For 2018:
Rahul Dravid (India)
Ricky Pointing (Australia)
Claire Taylor (England)

Jnanpith Award:
Since : 1965
Prize money: 11, 00, 000/-
1st Person : Shankar Kurup (Malayalam)
Book : Odakkuzhal (The Bamboo Flute)
For 2018 (54th): Amitov Ghosh (English)

Sahitya Akademy Award:
Since : 1954
Prize money: 1, 00, 000/-
For 2018 : 24 (in 24 languages)
Telugu: Dr. Kolakalur Enoch
Note: Download Sangeet Natak Akademi Awards 2019

Moortidevi Award
Since : 1983
Prize Money: 4 Lakh + Statue of Saraswati + Plaque + a Shawl
1st Person : C K Nagaraja Rao (Kannada)
Book : Pattamahadevi Shantala Devi
For 2017: Joy Goswami (Bengali)
Book : Do Dundo Phowar Matro

Saraswati Samman Award
Since : 1991
Prize Money: 15 Lakh + Citation + Plaque
1st Person : Harivansh Rai Bachchan
Book : For his autobiography (Hindi)
For 2017: Sitanshu Yashaschandri (Gujarati)
Book : Vakhar

Vyas Samman Award:
Established: 1991
Prize money: 2, 50, 000/-, a Citation & a Plague
1st Person : Ram Vilas Sharma
Book : Bharat ke Pracheen Bhasha Parivar Aur (3 Volumes)
For 2018: Leeladhar Jagudi
Book : Jitne Log Utne Prem

Kalidas Samman Award:
Since : 1980 – 81
Prize Money:
1st Person : S Srinivasa Iyer, Mallikarjun Mansur
For 2017 – 18: Anjolie Ela Menon

Tagore Cultural Harmony Award:
Since : 2012
Prize Money: One Crore + Citation + Plaque
1st Person : Pandit Ravi Shankar (Hindustani Classical Composer)
For 2016: Ram Vanji Sutar (Indian Sculptor)

Vikram Sarabhai Memorial Award
Established : 1997 – 98
For 2014 – 15: M Y S Prasad

Shanti Swarup Bhatnagar Awards
Since : 1958
Prize Money: 5 Lakh + Plaque + Citation+ Monthly retainer of 15, 000/-
1st Person : K Srinivasa Krishnan
For 2018: M. Venkata Ratnam

Kalinga Prize:
Since : 1952
1st Person: Louis de Broglie (France)
For 2017: Erik Jacquemyn (Belgium)

Dr. Y Naidamma Memorial Award
Since : 1986
For 2014 : Tessy Thomas, Geeta Vardan

Yash Chopra Memorial Award
Since : 2013
Prize Money: 10, 00, 000/-
1st Person: Lata Mangeshkar
For 2018: Asha Bhosle

Kuswanth Singh Memorial Award
Since : 2014
Prize Money: 2 Lakh
1st Person : Arundhathi Subramaniam in 2014
Book : When God Is A Traveller

Gollapudi Srinivas National Award:
For 2017: Hemanthrao (Kannada – Director)

G K Reddy Lifetime Achievement Award
For 2017 : Karan Thaper

Ramanujan Mathematics Award
Since : 2005
1st Person: Marcelo Viana (Brazil)
For 2018 : Ritabrata Munsi (India)

Chameli Devi Jain Award:
Since : 1982
For 2017 : Uma Sudhir

Homi J Baba Memorial Award
For 2015 : Prof. Dinesh Kumar

Lal Bahadur Shastri National Award
Since : 1999
Prize Money: 5 Lakh + Citation + Plaque
1st Person : Prof. C K Prahald
For 2018 : Fali S Nariman

Dr. B C Roy (Bidan Chandra Roy) Award
Since : 1973
1st Person: Sandeep Mukerjee
For 2018 :
H.S Shashidhar

B. K Mishra
P. Raghu Ram
H. R Surendra
Kirit Premjibhai Solanki
Sanjay Desai

G D Birla Award
Since : 1991
Prize Money: 1. 5 Lakh
1st Person : Asis Datta
For 2017 : Dr. Rajan Shankarnarayan (Sturcture Biology)

Golden Peacock Awards
Since: 1991
Publisher: Institute of Directors
For 2017: India Railways Organization for Alternate Fuel (IROAF)

Global Agriculture Leadership Award
Since: 2008
Publisher: ICFA (Indian Council of Food & Agriculture)
For 2018: Prf. Rudy Rabbinga

Dhanvantri Award
Dhanvantari Day – October 22
For 2017 : Dr Sultan Pradhan

Aryabhatta Award
Prize Money: 1 Lakh
For 2016 : Avinash Chander

DSC Prize for South Asian Literature
Since : 2011
Country : India
1st Person: H M Naqvi
Book : Home Boy
For 2018 : Jayanth Kaikini
Book : No Presents Please


Breakthrough Prize in Fundamental Physics
Since : 2012
For 2019 : Charles Kane (USA), Eugene John Mele (USA)

Amnesty International Human Rights Award
For 2018 : Nadeem Centre for Rehabilitation of Victims of Violence

United Nations Human Rights Award
Since: 1968
For 2018:
Asma Jahangir (Pakistan)
Rebeca Gyumi (Tanzania)
Joenia Wapixana (Brazil)
Front Line Defenders (Ireland)

UNESCO Human Rights Award
Since: 1978
For 2018:
Gunzalo Franco (Spain)

UNESCO Peace Prize
Since: 1991
1st Person: Nelson Mandela (South Africa)
For 2013:
Francois Hollande (France)

Nobel Awards
Country: Sweden, Norway (Peace Prize only)
Since: 1901
For 2018:
Arthur Ashkin (USA)
Gerard Mourou (France)
Donna Strickland (Canada)
Gorge Smith (USA)
Frances Arnold (USA)
Greg Winter (UK)
James P. Allison (USA)
Tasuku Honjo (Japan)
Denis Mukwege (Cango)
Nadia Murad (Iraq)
William D. Nordhaus (USA)
Paul M. Romer (USA)

Fields Medal
Since: 1936
For 2018: Caucher Bikar (Iran)
Alessio Figalli (Italy)
Peter Scholze (German)
Akshay Venkatesh (Indian – Australia)

Whitely Awards (Green Oscars)
Founder : Edward Whitely (UK)
Established: 1994
For 2018:
Pablo Garcia Borboroglu (Argentina)

Olivier Nsengimana (Rwanda)
Ceasar Rahman (Bangladesh)
Dominique Bikaba (Congo)
Kerstin Forsberg (Peru)
Anjali Watson (Sri Lanka)
Munir Virani (Kenya)

Ramon Magsaysay Award:
Founder : Rockefeller Brothers Fund (New York City)
Since : 1958
country : Philippines
For 2018:
Bharat Vatwani (India)
Sonam Wangchuk (India)
Youk Chhang (Cambodia)
Howard Dee (Cambodia)
Vo Thi Hoang Yen (Philliphines)
Maria de Lourdes Martins Cruz (East Timor)

Right Livelihood Award:
Since : 1980
Founder: Jacob Von Uexkull
Country : Sweden
1st Person: Hassan Fathy (Egypt)
Plenty International (USA + Lesotho + Guatemala)
For 2018 :
Abdullah al – Hamid (Saudi Arabia)
Mohammed Fahad (Saudi Arabia)
Walid Abu al – Chair (Saudi Arabia)
Tony Rinaudo (Australia)

World Food Prize:
October 16: World Food Day
Since : 1987
Location : Des Moines, Lowa, United States
1st Person : M S Swaminathan (India)
For 2018 :
Lawrence Haddad (UK)

David Nabarro (UK)

Pulitzer Prize:
Since : 1917
Country: Columbia University, USA
For 2018: Given to 26 Members

Pritzker Architecture Prize:
Since : 1979
Founder : Jay A Pritzker
Country : United States
1st Person: Philip Johnson (USA)
For 2018 : B. V. Doshi (India)

Abel Prize:
Since : 2003
Country : Norway
1st Person: Jean Pierre Serre (France)
For 2018 : Robert Langlands (Canada)

Templeton Prize:
Since : 1973
Country : United States
1st Person: Mother Teresa (India)
For 2019 : Marcelo Glesier (Brazil)

Man Booker Prize:
Since : 1969
Presented by: Man Group Institute
1st Person : P H Newby (UK)
Book : Something to Answer for
For 2018 : Anna Burns (Ireland)
Book : Milkman

Man Booker International Prize:
Since : 2005
Given By : Man Group Institute (UK)
1st Person: Ismail Kadare (Albania)
Book :
For 2018: Olga Tokarezuck (Poland)
Book : Flight

International Children Peace Prize:
Established : 2005
Founder : Kids Rights Foundation
Head Office : Amsterdam (Netherlands)
1st Winner : Nkosi Johnson (South Africa)
For 2018 : March for Our Lives (UK)

Orange Prize (Baileys Women’s Prize):
Since : 1996
Country : UK
1st Winner: Helen Dunmore (England)
Book : A Spell of Winter
For 2018 : Kamila Shamsie (Pakistani – British)
Book : Home Fire

Laures World’s Sports Awards:
Since: 2000
Presented by: Laureus Sports for Good Foundation
For 2018:
Men : Roger Federer (Switzerland)
Women: Serena Williams (USA)

International Hockey Player of the Year:
Since: 1998
For 2018:
Male: Arthur Van Doven (Belgium)
Female: Eva de Goede (Netherlands)

Asia Book Award:
For 2018
Joel Donato Ching Jacob (Philippines)
Book: Wing of the Locust

Mother Teresa International Award:
Since: 2000 – 01
1st Person: Jyoti Basu (West Bengal)
For 2017:
UNHRC (Switzerland)
Priyanka chopra (India)

Asian of the Year Award:
Since: 2010
Country: UK
Awarded for: Honourin Asian Excellence
For 2018:
Business Leader of the Year : Arundhati Bhattacharya
Public Servant of the Year: Kiran Bajracharya
Entrepreneur of the Year: Sunny Varkey
Philanthropists of the Year: Ramesh & Pratibha Sachdev
Outstanding Acheivement in Sports: Jahangir Khan
Outstanding Achievement in Cinema: Sri Devi
Outstanding Achievement in Science & Technology: Prathiba Gai
Outstanding Achievement in Television: Anita Rani
Rising Star: Bana al – Abed

TIME Person of the Year Award:
Since : 1927
1st Awarded: Charles Lindbergh (USA)
For 2018 : The Guardians (British Daily News paper)

Tang Prize (Asia Nobel):
Since : 2014
Founder: Samuel Yin (Taiwan)
Country : Taiwan
For 2018:
Sinology : Stephen Owen (USA), Yoshinobu Shiba (Japan)
Rule of Law : Joseph Raz (UK)
Sustainable Development: Veerabhadran Ramanathan (India), James E. Hansen (USA)
Biopharmaceuticla Science: Antony R. Hunter (USA), Brian J. Druker (USA), John Mendelsohn (USA)

UNHCR’s Nansen Refugee Award:
Since: 1954
Country: Switzerland
Awarded for: Outstanding Service to the cause of refugees
For 2018: Evan Atar Adaha (South Sudan)

Press Freedom Prize:
It is named in honour of Guillermo Cano Isaza (Colombia Journalist)
Established: 1997
Given by: UNESCO
For 2018: Mahmed Abi Zeid (Egypt)

Ernst & Young Lifetime Achievement Award:
For 2018:
Azim Premji (India)

Dada Saheb Phalke Award:
Since : 1969
Prize Money: 10 Lakh + Golden Lotus + Shawl
1st Person : Devika Rani
For 2017(65th): Vinod Khanna (Hindi)

National Film Awards
Since: 1954
For 2017 (65th)
Best Film: Village Rockstars (Assamee)
Best Director : Jayaraj (Movie – Bhayanakam)
Best Actor: Riddhi Sen (Movie – Nagar Kirtan)
Best Actress: Sridevi (Movie – Mom)
Best Supporting Actor: Fahad Faasil (Movie – Thondimuthalum Driksakshiyum)
Best Supporting Actress: Divya Dutta (Movie – Irada)
Best Male Singer: K J Yesudas
Best Female Singer: Shasha Tirupathi
Best Special Effects: Bahubali – 2
Best Children Film: Mhorkya
Best Music Director: A R Rehman (Movie – Kaatru Veliyiday)

Grammy Awards:
Since : 1959
Country : United States
For 2017:
Record of the year: This is America (Childish Gambio)
Album of the year: Golden Hour (Kacey Musgraves)
Song of the year : This is America (Childish Gambio)

Film Fare Awards:
For 2018 (64th)
Best Film : Hindi Medium
Best Director : Ashwiny Iyer Tiwari (Movie – Bareily Ki Barfi)
Best Actor : Irfan Khan (Movie – Hindi Medium)
Best Actress : Vidya Balan (Movie – Tumhari Sulu)
Best Supporting Actor : Rajkumar Rao (Movie – Bareilly Ki Barfi)
Best Supporting Actress: Meheer Vij (Movie – Secret Superstar)
Best Music Director : Pritam (Movie – Jagga Jasoos)
Best Singer (Male) : Arijit Singh (Movie – Badrinath Ki Dulhania)
Best Singer (Female) : Meghana Mishra (Movie – Secret Superstar)

IIFA Awards:
Since : 2000
Country: India
Given In: Thailand
Date: 22 – 24 June 2018
For 2018 (19th):
Best Film : Tumhari Sulu
Best Director : Saket Chaudhary (Movie – Hindi Medium)
Best Actor : Irfhan Khan (Movie – Hindi Medium)
Best Actress : Sri Devi (Movie – Mom)
Best Supporting Actor: Nawazudding Siddiqui (Movie – Mom)
Best Supporting Actress: Meher Vij (Movie – Secret Superstar)
Best Music Director : Amaal Malik + Tanish Bagchi + Akhil Sachdeva (Movie: Badrinath Ki Dulhania)
Best Male Singer : Arjit Singh (Movie: Jab Harry Met Sajal)
Best Female Singer : Meghana Mishra (Movie: Secret Superstar)

International Film Festival of India (IFFI):
Founded: 1952
Location: Goa, India
For 2018 (49th)
Date: 28 November 2018
Opening Film: The Aspern Papers
Closing Film : Sealed Lips
Best Film : Donbass
Best Director: Lijo Jose Pellissery (Ea. Ma. Yau.)
Best Actor : Chemban Vinod Jose (Ea. Ma. Yau.)
Best Actress: Anastasila Pustovit (When the Trees Fall)
Special Jury Award: Milko Lazarov (AGA)
Indian Film Personality of the Year: Salim Khan

Oscar Awards:
Since : 1929
Location: In Dolbey Theatre (Los Angels, USA)
For 2017(90th):
Best Film : Green Book (Director: Guillermo del Toro)
Best Director : Alfonso Cuaron (Movie: Roma)
Best Actor : Rami Malek (Movie: Bohemian Rhapsody)
Best Actress : Olivia Colman (Movie: The Favourite)
Best Supporting Actor: Mahershala Ali (Movie: Green Book)
Best Supporting Actress: Regina King (Movie: If Baele Stree Could Talk)
Best Foreign Film : Roma
Best Animated Film : Spider Man
Best Short Film: Period: End of Sentence

Golden Globe Awards:
Since : 1943
country : Unites States
For 2018 (76th):
Place: California – USA
Date: 6th January 2019
Best Film : Bohemian Rhapsody – Drama, Green Book – Musical or Comedy
Best Director : Alfonso Cuaron (Movie – Roma)
Best Actor :
Rami Malek (Movie – Bohemian Rhapsody) – Drama
Christian Bale (Movie: Vice) – Comedy or Musical
Best Actress :
Glenn Close (Movie – The Wife) – Drama
Olivia Colman (Movie: The Favourite) – Comedy or Musical
Best Supporting Actor:
Maheshala Ali
(Movie: Green Book)
Best Supporting Actress:
Regina King
(Movie: If Beale Street Could Talk)
Best Animated Film: Spider Man – Man: Into the Spider – Verse
Best Foreign Film: Roma (Mexico)

NTR National Award:
Prize Money: 5 lakhs and memento
1ST Person : Akkineni Nageswarao
For 2016 : Rajinikanth

ANR National Award:
Since : 2006
1st Person: Dev Anand (Bollywood Actor)
For 2017 : Rajamouli

Raghupati Venkaiah Nayudu Award:
Since : 1981
1st Person: L. V. Prasad
For 2016 : Chiranjeevi

Kaloji Narayana Rao Award:
Since: 2015
Given for: Writings & Literature
Prize Money: 1, 01, 116/-
1st Person: Ammangi Venugopal
For 2018: Ampashayya Naveen


Hockey Present Coach: Graham Reid
Hockey Present Team Captain: Manpret Singh

Sultan Azlan Shah Cup (Hockey):
Since : 1983
Country: Malaysia
For 2018
Winner: Australia
Runner: England
Venue : Ipoh, Azlan Shah Stadium (Malaysia)

Rangaswami Cup (Hockey):
Country: India
For 2013 (64th)
Winner: Karnatak (South Zone)
Runner: Uttar Pradesh (Central Zone)
Venue : KSHA Hoceky Stadium, Bangalore- 8th to 16th May 2013

Asia Cup Hockey:
Founded : 1982
No. of Teams:
Men = 12
Women = 8
For 2017:
For Men:
Winner: India
Runner: Malaysia
Place : Dhaka (Bangladesh)
Date : 11 – 22 October 2017
Men Hockey Asia Cup – 2021:
Host Country: Pakistan
Date: 2021

Women Hockey Asia Cup – 2017:
Winner: India
Runner: China
Place : Kakamigahar & Gifu (Japan)
Date : 28th October to 5th November 2017

Men’s Hockey World Cup:
Since: 1971
No. of Teams: 12
2018 Men’s Hockey World Cup:
Host City: Bhubaneshwar (Odisha)
Venue: Kalinga Stadium
Date: 28 November to 16 December 2018
No. of Teams: 16
Winner: Belgium
Runner: Netherlands

Women’s Hockey World Cup:
Since: 1974
No. of Teams: 12
2018 Women’s Hockey World Cup:
Host City: London (England)
Date: 21 July to 5 August 2018
No. of Teams: 16
Winner: Netherlnds
Runner: Ireland

Sultan Azlansha Cup, Rangaswami Cup, Agakhan Cup, Muragappa Gold Cup, Dhyanchan Trophy, Gurunanak Cup, Mumbai Gold Cup, Bitan Cup, Indira Gold Cup, Modi Gold Cup, Ranjith Singh Gold Cup, Asia Cup
Related Terms:
Centre, Penalty Stroke, Stick, Punch-in, Carry, Touch Line, Penalty Line
Famous Players:
Mandeep Singh (India)
Harendra Singh
Dilip Tirkey
Leslie Claudius (India)
Gagan Ajit Singh (India)
Pargat Singh (India)


Malaysia Open (Badminton):
Since : 1937
country: Malaysia
For 2018:
Date: 26 June – 1 July 2018
Men’s Singles:
Winner: Lee Chong Wei (China)
Women’s Singles:
Winner: Tai Tzu – ying (Taiwan)
Men’s Doubles:
Winner: Takeshi Kamura (Japan)
Keigo Sonoda (Japan)
Women’s Doubles:
Winner: Misaki Matsutomo (Japan)
Ayaka Takahashi (Japan)
Mixed Doubles:
Winner: Zheng Siwei (China)
Huang Yaqiong (China)

Indonesia Open (Badminton):
Since : 1982
Country: Indonesia
For 2018:
Date: 3 – 8 July 2018
Men’s Singles:
Winner: Kento Momota (Japan)
Women’s Singles:
Winner: Tai Tzu – ying (Taiwan)
Men’s Doubles:
Winner: Marcus (Indonesia)
Kevin Sanjaya Sukamuljo (Indonesia)
Women’s Doubles:
Winner: Yuki Fukushima (Japan)
Sayaka Hirota (Japan)
Mixed Doubles:
Winner: Zheng Siwei (Indonesia)
Liliyana Natsir (Indonesia)

Singapore Open (Badminton):
Since : 1987
Country: Singapore
For 2018:
Date: 17 – 22 July 2018
Men’s Singles:
Winner: Chou Tien – chen (Taiwan)
Women’s Singles:
Winner: Sayaka Takahashi (Japan)
Men’s Doubles:
Winner: Mohammad Ahsan (Indonesia)
Hendra Setiawan (Indonesia)
Women’s Doubles:
Winner: Yukiko Takahata (Japan)
Ayako Sakuramoto (Japan)
Mixed Doubles:
Winner: Goh Soon Huat (Malaysia)
Shevon Jemie Lai (Malaysia)

All England Open Badminton Championships:
Since : 1899
Country: England
For 2018:
Date: 14 – 18 March 2018
Men’s Singles:
Winner: Shi Yuqi (China)
Women’s Singles:
Winner: Tai Tzu – ying (Taiwan)
Men’s Doubles:
Winner: Marcus Fernaldi Gideon (Indonesia)
Kevin Sanjaya Sukamuljo (Indoneisa)
Women’s Doubles:
Winner: Kamilla Rytter Juhi (Denmark)
Christinna Pedersen (Denmark)
Mixed Doubles:
Winner: Yuta Watanabe (Japan)
Arisa Higashino (Japan)

Thomas Cup (Men – Badminton):
Since : 1949
Founder: George Alan Thomas (England)
For 2018 (30th)
Winner: China
Runner: Japan
Venue : Muang Thong Thani, Pak Kret (Thailand)
20 – 27 May 2018

Uber Cup (Women – badminton):
Since: 1957
For 2018 (27th)
Winner: Japan
Runner: Thailand
Venue : Muang Thong Thani, Pak Kret (Thailand) 20 – 27 May 2018

Syed Modi International (Badminton):
Since : 2009
Country: India
For 2018
Venue: Babu Banarasi Das Indoor Stadium Lucknow, 20 – 25 November 2018
Men’s Singles:
Winner: Sameer Varma (India)
Women’s Singles:
Winner: Yan Yue (China)
Men’s Doubles:
Winner: Fajar Alfian (Indonesia)
Muhmmad Rian (Indonesia)
Women’s Doubles:
Winner: Chow Mei Kuan (Malaysia)
Lee Meng Yean (Malaysia)
Mixed Doubles:
Winner: Ou Xuanyi (China)
Feng Xueying (China)

Australian Open (Badminton):
Since : 1989
Country: Australia
For 2018
Date: 8 – 13 May 2018
Men’s Singles:
Winner: Lu Guanzu (China)
Women’s Singles:
Winner: Cai Yanyan (China)
Men’s Doubles:
Winner: Berry Angriawan (Indonesia)
Hardianto (Indonesia)
Women’s Doubles:
Winner: Ayako Sakurmato (Japan)
Yukiko Takahata (Japan)
Mixed Doubles:
Winner: Seo Seung – jae (South Korea)
Chae Yoo – jung (South Korea)

China Open (Badminton):
Since : 1986
Country: China
For 2018
Date: 18 – 23 September 2018
Men’s Singles:
Winner: Anthony Sinisuka (Indonesia)
Women’s Singles:
Winner: Carolina Marin (Spain)
Men’s Doubles:
Winner: Kim Astrup (Denmark)
Anders Skaarup Rasmussen (Denmark)
Women’s Doubles:
Winner: Misaki Matsutomo (Japan)
Ayaka Takahasi (Japan)
Mixed Doubles:
Winner: Zeng Siwei (China)
Huang Yaqiong (China)

Denmark Open (Badminton):
For 2018:
Venue: Odense Sports Park, Odense – Denmark
Date : 16 – 21 October 2018
Prize Money: US$ 7, 75, 000
Men’s Singles: Kento Momota (Japan)
Women’s Singles: Tai Tzu – ying (Chinese Taipei)
Men’s Doubles: Marcus Fernaldi Gideon (Indonesia)
Kevin Sanjaya Sukamuljo (Indonesia)
Women’s Doubles: Yuki Fukushima (Japan)
Sayaka Hirota (Japan)
Mixed Doubles: Zheng Siwei (China)
Huang Yaqiong (China)

World Badminton Championship:
Founded: 1977
For 2018 (24rd):
Venue: Nanjing (China)
Date : 30 July – 5 August 2018
Men’s Singles:
Winner: Kento Momota (Japan)
Runner: Shi Yuqi (China)
Women’s Singles:
Winner: Carolina Marin (Spain)
Runner: P. V. Sindhu (India)
Men’s Doubles:
Winner: Li Junhui (China)
Liu Yuchen (China)
Runner: Takeshi Tamura (Japan)
Keigo Sonoda (Japan)
Women’s Doubles:
Winner: Mayu Matsumoto (Japan)
Wakana Nagahara (Japan)
Runner: Yuki Fukushima (Japan)
Sayaka Hirota (Japan)
Mixed’s Doubles:
Winner: Zheng Siwei (China)
Huang Yaqiong (China)
Runner: Wang Yilu (China)
Huang Dongping (China)

Thamas Cup, Uber Cup, Sudirman Cup, NarangCup, Mayer’s Cup, All England Cup, IBL Rehamulla Cup, Aros Junior Cup, Challenge Cup
Related Terms:
Drop, Dues, Smash, Love, Double fault, Touch, base line, Back court, Bird, Carry, Clear, Center line, Court, Drive, Kill, Rally
Famous Badminton Players:
SainaNehwal (India)
P V Sindhu (India)
K Srikanth (India)

Parupalli Kashyap (India)
Aparna Popat (India)
Chetan Anand (India)
Anup Sridhar (India)
Dipankar Bhattacharya


Australian Open (Tennis):
Since : 1905
Country: Australia
For 2019 (107th)
Venue: Melbourne Park
Court : Hard Court
Date : 14 – 27 January 2019
Men’s Singles:-
Winner: Novak Djokovic (Serbia)
Runner: Rafael Nadal (Spain)
Women’s Singles:-
Winner: Naomi Osaka (Japan)
Runner: Petra Kvitova (Chech Republic)
Men’s Doubles:-
Winner: Pierre – Hugues Herbert (France)
Nicolas Mahut (France)
Women’s Doubles:-
Winner: Samantha Stosur (Australia)
Zhang Shuai (China)
Mixed Doubles:-
Winner: Barbora Krejcikova (Chech Republic)
Rajiv Ram (USA)

French Open (Tennis)
Since : 1891
Country: France
For 2018 (117th)
Venue: Stade Roland Garros
Court : Clay Court
Date : 27 May to 10 June 2018
Men’s Singles:-
Winner: Rafael Nadal (Spain)
Runner: Dominic Theim (Austria)
Women’s Singles:-
Winner: Simona Halep (Romania)
Runner: Sloane Stephens (USA)
Men’s Doubles:-
Winner: Pierre – Hugues (USA)
Nicolas Mahut (France)
Women’s Doubles:-
Winner: Barbora Krejclkova (Czech Republic)
Katerina Siniakova (Czech Republic)
Mixed Doubles:-
Winner: Latisha Chan (Taiwan)
Ivan Dodig (Croatia)

Since : 1877
Country: England
For 2018 (132nd)
Venue: All England Lawn Tennis & Croquet Club
Court : Grass Court
Date : 2 – 14 July 2018
Men’s Singles:
Winner : Novak Djokovic (Serbia)
Runnner: Kevin Anderson (South Africa)
Women’s Singles:
Winner: Angelique Kerber (Germany)
Runner: Serena Williams (USA)
Men’s Doubles:
Winner: Mike Bryan (USA)
Jack Sock (USA)
Runner: Raven Klaasen (South Africa)
Michael Venus (New Zealand)
Women’s Doubles:
Winner : Barbora Krejcikova (Czech Republic)
Katerina Siniakova (Czech Republic)
Runner : Nicole Melichar (USA)
Kveta Psechke (Czech Republic)
Mixed Doubles:
Winner: Alexander Peya (Austria)
Nicole Melichar (USA)
Runner: Jamie Murray (UK)
Victoria Azarenka (Belarus)

US OPEN (Tennis)
Since : 1881
Country: United States
For 2018 (138th)
Venue: USTA Billie Jean King National Tennis
Center, New York
Court : Hard Court
Date : 27 August – 9 September 2018
Men’s Singles:
Winner: Novak Djokovic (Serbia)
Runner: Juan Martin del Potro (Argentina)
Women’s Singles:
Winner: Naomi Osaka (Japan)
Runner: Serena Williams (USA)
Men’s Doubles:
Winner: Mike Bryan (USA)
Jack Sock (USA)
Women’s Doubles:
Winner: Ashleigh Barty (Australia)
Coco Vandeweghe (USA)
Mixed Doubles:
Winner: Bethanie Mattek – Sands (USA)
Jamie Murray (UK)

Australia Open, French Open, Wimbeldon, US Open, Davis Cup (World Cup of Tennis), Hopman Cup
Related Terms:
Smash, Serve , Set, Duece, Ace, Slice, Love, Backhand, Forehand, Grandslam, lab
Famous Tennis Players:
Roger Federar (Argentina)
Rafel Nadal (Spain)

Novak Jacovich (Serbia)
Andy Murray (UK)

Sharapova (Russia)
Serena Williams (USA)

Martina Hingis (Switzerland)
Simona Halep (Romania)
Jaidip Mukerjea (India)

Vijay Amrijraj (India)
Ramesh Krishnan (India)

Leander Paes (India)
Mahesh Bhupati (India)

Rohan Bopanna (India)
Sania Mirza (India)
Guptha Jwala (India)


Santosh Trophy (Football):
Since : 1941
Country: India
For 2017 – 18 (72st)
Winner: Kerala
Runner: West Bengal
Venue : Held in Salt lake stadium, Kolkata April 1st 2018

Durand Cup (Football):
Since : 1888
Country: India
For 2016 (128th)
Winner: Army Green
Runner: NEROCA
Venue : Ambedkar Stadium, New Delhi 28.08.2016 to 11.09.2016

South Asian Football Federation Championship (SAFF):
Since: 1993
For 2018 (12th)
Host Country: Bangladesh
Venue : Bangabandhu National Stadium – Dhaka
Date: 4 – 15 September 2018
Teams: 7
Winner: Maldives
Runner: India
2020 SAFF Championship (13th)
Host Country: Pakistan

Asian Cup (Football):
Since: 1956
For 2015 (16th)
Host Country: Australia
Winner: Australia
Runner: South Korea
Venue : Australia, 6 – 2 – 2013 to 5 – 3 – 2014
For 2019 (17th)
Host Country: United Arab Emirates
Venue :UAE, 5 January – 1 February 2019

COPA America Football:
Since : 1916
Region: South America (CONMEBOL)
For 2016 (100th)
Host Country: United States
Winner: Chile
Runner: Argentina
Venue : United States, 3 – 6 June 2016
For 2019 (101st)
Host Country: Brazil
Venue : Brazil, June – July 2019

EURO Cup (Football):
Since: 1960
For 2016 (15th)
Host Country: France
Winner: Portugal
Runner: France
Venue : France, 10 June – 10 July 2016
For 2020 (16th)
Host Country: 13 Countries
Date : June – July 2020

FIFA World Cup (Football):
Since: 1930
For 2018 (21st)
Host Country: Russia
Dates : 14 June – 15 July 2018
Winner: France
Runner: Croatia
Best Player: Luka Modric (Croatia)
Golden Boot: Harry Kane (England)
Golden Glove: Thibaut Courtois (Belgium)

FIFA Confederation Cup(Football):
Since: 1992
For 2017 (10th)
Host Country: Russia
Dates : 17 June – 2 July 2017
Winner : Germany
Runner : Chile
Place : Russia

Indian Super League (Football):
Since : 2014
Country: India
For 2018 – 19 (5th)
Winner: Bengaluru FC
Runner: FC Goa
Date: 29 September 2018 to 17 March 2019

Under 17 Women’s Football World Cup 2020
Host Country: India

Federation Cup, Nehru Cup, Nizam Gold Cup, Subratho Cup, Rovers Cup, Mardeka Cup, BC Roy Cup, DCM Trophy, Europe League, Colombo Cup, Indira Gandhi Trophy, COPA Cup,
Related Terms:
Goal, Corner- kick, Free kick, Red Card, Yellow card, Foul, Trapping, Heading, Penalty, Pass, Forward, Dribble, Half, Give & Go,
Famous Football Players:
Baichung Bhutia (India)
Invalappil Mani Vijayan (India)


Ranji Trophy (Cricket)
Since : 1934
Country : India
No. of Teams: 37
For 2018 – 19 (85th)
Winner: Vidarbha
Runner: Saurasthra
Date : 1 November 2018 – 7 February 2019

Irani Cup (Cricket)
Since : 1959 – 60
Country : India
No. of Teams: 2
For 2018 – 19 (57th)
Winner: Rest of India
Runner: Vidarbha
Venue : Vidarbha Cricket Association Stadium – Nagpur
Date:12 – 16 February 2019

Duleep Trophy (Cricket):
Since : 1961 – 62
Country : India
No. of Teams: 5
For 2018 (57th)
Winner: India Blue
Runner: India Red
Date : 17 – 08 – 2018 to 09 – 09 – 2018

Devedhar Trophy (Cricket)
Since : 1973 – 34
Country : India
No. of Teams: 5
For 2018 – 19 (46th)
Winner: India C
Runner: India B
Venue : Delhi
Date: 23 – 27 October 2018

Vijay Hazare Trophy (Cricket):
Since : 2002 – 03
Country : India
No. of Teams: 28
For 2018 – 19 (17th)
Winner: Mumbai
Runner: Delhi
Date : 19 September to 20 October 2018

Indian Premier League (Cricket):
Since : 2008
Country: India
Founder : Lalit Modi
No. of Teams: 8
For 2018 (11th)
Winner: Chennai Super Kings
Runner: Sun Risers Hyderabad
Date : 7 April – 27 May 2018
Player of Series: Sunil Narine (KKR – 357 runs +17 wickets)
Most Runs : Kane Williamson (SRH – 735)
Most Wickets : Andrew Tye (KXIP – 24)

Asia Cup (Cricket)
Since: 1984
For 2016 (1st T – 20)
Host Country: Bangladesh
Winner: India
Runner: Bangladesh
Venue : Bangladesh
For 2018 (ODI)
Host Country: UAE
Date: 15 – 28 September 2018
Winner: India
Runner: Bangladesh
Player of the Series: Shikhar Dhawan

Ashes Series (Cricket):
Since: 1882 – 83
For 2017 – 18 (70th)
Host Country: Australia
Venue : in Australia, 23.11.2017 to 08.01.2018
Winner: Australia
Runner: England

Border – Gavaskar Trophy (Cricket):
Since: 1996 – 97
For 2016 – 17 (13th)
Host Country: India
Winner: India
Runner: Australia
Venue : in India
For 2018 – 19:
Host Country: Australia
Date: 21 November 2018 to 18 January 2019
Winner: India
Runner: Australia

ICC Cricket World Cup
Since: 1975
For 2019 (12th)
Host Country: England & Wales
Dates : 30 May to 15 July 2019
For 2023 (13th): India

ICC Women’s Cricket World Cup:
Since: 1973
For 2017 (11th)
Host Country: England & Wales
Venue : London, 24 June to 23 July 2017
Winner: England
Runner: India
For 2021 (12th)
Host Country: New Zealand

ICC Under – 19 Cricket World Cup:
Since: 1988
For 2018 (12th)
Host Country: Newzealand
Winner: India
Runner: Australia
Dates : 13 January to 3 February 2018

ICC Champion Trophy (Cricket):
Since: 1998
For 2017 (8th)
Host Country: England & Wales
Winner: Pakistan
Runner: India
Dates : 1st June to 18th June 2017
For 2021 (9th)
Host Country: India

ICC T-20 World Cup (Cricket)
Since: 2007
For 2016 (6th)
Host Country: India
Winner: West Indies
Runner: England
Venue : in Kolkata
For 2020 (7th)
Host Country: Australia

Vijay Merchant Trophy, Cooch Bihar Trophy, Sahara Trophy, Meinuddallah Cup, Syed Mustak Ali Trophy, Singer Cup, Wisdon Cup.
Related Terms:
Hat-trick, Maiden, Follow-on, Gully, Bouncer, Pull, Yorker, Googly, Hook, Duck, LBW, Pitch.


Women’s Boxing World Championship – 2018
Host City: New Delhi (India)
Date: November 15 – 24, 2018
Men’s World Boxing Championship – 2021:
Host Country: India

Federation Cup, Val Barker Trophy
Related Terms:
Rounds, Knock Out, Jab, Hook, Punch, Count down
Famous Boxing Players:
Manoj Kumar (India)
MC Mary Kom (India)
L Saritha Devi (India)
Vikash Krishna (India)
Shiva Thapa (India)
Dingo Singh (India)
Ali Qamar (India)
Amith Panghal (India)
Kavinder Singh Bisht (India)
Deepika Singh (India)


Famous Archery Players:
Deepika Kumari (India)
Bombyala Devi (India)
Laxmirani Majni (India)
Tarundeep Rai
Akash Malik (India)
Dola Benarjee
Harving Singh (India)


World Chess Championship (WCC):
Since: 1834
For 2018
Host city: London (UK)
Date: 9 – 28 November 2018
Winner: Magnus Carlsen
Runner: Fabiano Caruana

World Chess Olympiad
Since: 1927
2018 World Chess Olympiad (43rd)
Host city: Batumi (Georgia)
Date: 23 September – 6 October 2018
Teams: 185 (Open), 151 (Women)
Nations: 180 (Open), 146 (Women)
Open: Women:
China – 1st China – 1st
USA – 2nd Ukraine – 2nd
Russia – 3rd Georgia – 3rd
Open: Women:
Jorge Cori (Peru) Ju Wenjun (China)

World Rapid Chess Championship:
Since: 2012
For 2018:
Danil Dubov (Russia) – Men
Ju Wenjun (China) – Women
Place: Saint Petersberg (Russia)

Naidu Trophy, Khaitan Trophy.

Related Terms:
Move, Check mate, Knight, Pawn, FIDE, Gambit, Double check, Promotion, Grand master, Attack, King, Queen, Rook, Bishops, draw

Famous Chess Players:
ViswanathAnandh (Tamilanadu – India)
Dronavalli Harika (India)
Koneru Hampi (India)
Hari Krishna (India)
Nihal Sarin (India)
Parimarjan Negi (India)
K Sasikiran (India)
Sandipan Chanda (India)
Dibyendu Barua (India)
Tanya Sachdeva (India)
Vaishali Narendra Salwakar (India)


Walker Trophy, Thamus Cup

Related Terms:
Cue, Canon, Long jenny, Short jenny, Frame, In-off, Pot

Famous Snooker Players:
Pankaj Advani (India)
Mark Selby (India)
Geet Sethi (India)
Ashok Shandilya (India)
Michael Ferreira (India)


Ryder Cup:
Since: 1927
2018 Ryder Cup (42nd)
Place: France,
Date: 28 – 30 September, 2018
Winner: Europe
2020 Ryder Cup (43rd)
Place: USA:
Date: 25 – 27 September, 2020
2022 Ryder Cup (44th)
Place: Italy

Ryder Cup, Walker Cup, Canada Cup

Related Terms:
Course, Links, Tee, Niblic, Hole, Eagle, Par, Put, Club, Iron, Rough

Famous Players:
AnirbanLahiri (India)
Viraj Madappa (India)
Jyoti Randhawa (India
Gaurav Gei (India)
Jeev Milkha Singh (India)
Arjun Atwal (India)
Shiv Kapur (India)
Sharmila Nicollet (Indo – French)


Uthant Cup, Corbilition Cup

Related Terms:
Smash, Drop, Duece, Spin, Let, Service, Hit, Loop, Flip, Push, Chop, Block, Lob

Famous Table Tennis Players:
Achanta Sharatha Kamal (India)
Mouma Das (India)
Chetan Babur (India)
Poulomi Ghatak (India)


FIBA Asia Cup Championship (Basketball)
Founded: 1981
No. of Teams: 10
For 2017:
Winner: Al – Riyadi (Lebanon)
Runner: China Kashgar
Place : Chenzhou (China),
Date : 22 – 30 September, 2017

FIFA Basketball World Cup – 2019
Host Country: China
Mascot: Son of Dreams

BC Guptha Cup, Todd Memorial Trophy, William Jones Cup

Related Terms:
Block, Dribble, Pivot, Dunk, Free throw, Lay up, Jump shot, Rebound, Point guard, Power forward

Famous Players:
Akansha Singh (India)


Related Terms:
Let, Stroke, Tight, Interference, Hot ball,Game, Foot fault, Appeal, Striker, Set, Rally, Rail, Nick, Lob, Drive, Drop

Famous Squash Players:
Mark Selby
Joshna Chinnappa
Saurav Ghosal
Ritwik Bhattacharya
Dipika Pallikal (India)


World Shooting Championship – 2018
Place: Changwon (South Korea)
Date: 2 – 14 September 2018

Famous Shooters:
Vijay Kumar (India)
Gagan Narang (India)
Abinav Bindra (India)
Samresh Jang (India)
Jaspal Rana (India)
Anjali Bhagwat (India)
Manvjit Singh Sandhu (India)
Udhayveer Singh (India)
Hriday Hazarika (India)
Ankul Mittal (India)
Rahi Sarnobat (India)
Saurabh Chaudhary (India)
Heen Sindhu (India)
Muskan Bhanwala (India)
Anish Banwala (India)
Manu Bhaker (India)


World Wrestling Championships (WWC)
Since: 1904
Dates: September – October
Team Types: Men’s freestyle + Men’s Greco Roman+ Women’s freestyle
2018 World Wrestling Championships (15th):
Host City: Budapest (Hungary)
Date: October 20 – 28, 2018
2018 World Junior Wrestling Championship
Host City: Tranav (Slovekia)
Date: 17 – 23 September 2018

Asian Wrestling Championships
2018 Asian Wrestling Championships
Host city: Bishkek (Kyrgyzstan)
Date: 28th February – 4th March 2018
Men’s freestyle: Uzbekistan
Men’s Greco – Roman: Kyrgyzstan
Women’s freestyle: China
2019 Asian Wrestling Championship:
Host city: Ashgabat (Turkmenistan)

Related Terms:
Action, Arm Control, Arm throw, Base Bridge, Bridge out, Bridge down, Bout, Clamping, Default, Decision, Disqualification, Escape, Pin, Reversal, Stalemate, Freestyle , Folkstyle, Illegal hold, Near fall , Take down

Famous Wrestling Players:
Sushil Kumar (India)
Dalip Singh Rana (India)
Dara Singh (India)
Yogeswar Dutt (India)
Sakshi Malik (India)
Gober Goha (India)
Panne Lal Yadav (India)
Narsing Pancham Yadav (India)
Bajarang Punia (India)
Geeta Pogat (India)
Vinesh Pogat (India)


Related Terms:
Bounce, Complex, Concentric, Eccentric, Double Knee, Bend, Drive position, Fist pull, Hang, Hook grip, Power, Scoop, Split, Straps

Famous Weightlifting Players:
N Kunjarani Devi (India)
Karanam Malleswari (India)
Jeremy Lalrinnunga (India)
Poonam Yadav (India)

Olympic Games

Since: 1896
For 2016 (31st)
Host Country: Rio de Janerio (Brazil)
Motto : A New World
Participated Countries: 207
Date : 5 – 21 August 2016
United States (1st):
46 (Gold) 37 (Silver) 38 (Bronze)
Great Britain (2nd):
27 (Gold) 23 (Silver) 17 (Bronze)
China (3rd):
26 (Gold) 18 (Silver) 26 (Bronze)
2020 Summer Olympics (32nd)
Host City: Tokyo (Japan)
Motto: Mlraitowa (Enternal Future)
Date: 24 July to 9 August 2020
2024 Summer Olympics (33rd):
Paris (France)
2028 Summer Olympics (34th):
Los Angeles (USA)

Winter Olympic Games:
Since: 1924
2018 Winter Olympics (23rd):
Hoct City: Pyeongchang (South Korea)
Motto : Passion, Connected
Date : 9 – 25 February 2018

Summer Paralympic Games:
Since: 1960
For 2020(16th):
Host Coutnry: Japan
Motto: Someity (So mighty)
Date: August 25 to September 6
For 2024 (17th)
Host Country: Paris

Winter Paralympic Games:
Since: 1976
For 2018(12th):
Host City: Pyeongchang (South Korea)
Motto: Passion Connected
Date: 9 March to 18 March
Participated Countries: 49
United State (USA) – 1st
Gold – 13 Silver – 15 Bronze – 8 (Total – 36)
Neutral Paralympic Athletes (NPA) – 2nd
Gold – 8 Silver – 10 Bronze – 6 (Total – 24)
Canada – 3rd
Gold – 8 Silver – 4 Bronze – 16 (Total – 28)
For 2022 (13th)
Host City: Beijing (China)
Motto: Joyful Rendezvous Upon Pure Ice and Snow
Date: 4 March to 13 March

Youth Olympic Games:
Founder: Johann Rosenzopf (Austria)

Summer Youth Olympic Games:
Since: 2010
2018 Summer Youth Olympic Games (3rd):
Host city: Buenos Aires (Argentina)
Date: 6 – 18 October 2018
Motto: Feel the Future
Nations: 206
Events: 239 in 32 sports
Russia (1st)
Gold – 29 Silver – 18 Bronze – 12 => 59
China (2nd)
Gold – 18 Silver – 9 Bronze – 9 => 36
Japan (3rd)
Gold – 15 Silver – 12 Bronze – 12 => 39
India (17th)
Gold – 3 Silver – 9 Bronze – 1 => 13
2022 Summer Youth Olympic Games (4th)
Host city: Dakar (Senegal)

Winter Youth Olympic Games
Since: 2012
2020 Winter Youth Olympic Games (3rd)
Host city: Lausanne (Switzerland)
Date: 9 – 22 January 2018

Asian Games

Since: 1951
2018 Asian Games (18th):
Host City: Jakarta + Palenbang (Indonesia)
Date: August 18th to 2nd September – 2018
Motto: Energy of Asia
Mascot: Bhin Bhin, Kaka, Atang
Nations participating: 45 countries
Events: 465 in 40 sports
2018 Asian Games (18th):
China (1st Place)
Gold – 132 Silver – 92 Bronze – 65 Total – 289
Japan (2nd Place)
Gold – 75 Silver – 56 Bronze – 74 Total – 205
South Korea (3rd Place)
Gold – 49 Silver – 58 Bronze – 70 Total – 177
India (8th Place)
Gold – 15 Silver – 24 Bronze – 30 Total – 69
2022 Asian Games (19th)
Host City: Hangzhou (China)
Date: 10 – 25 September 2022

Asian Athletics Championships:
Since: 1973
2017 Asian Athletics Championships (22nd)
Host City: Bhubaneswar, Odisha (India)
Participation: 560 athletes from 41 nations
Events : 42
Date : 6 – 9 July 2017
India (1st):
Gold – 12, Silver – 5, Bronze – 12 (Total 29)
China (2nd):
Gold – 8, Silver – 9, Bronze – 4 (Total 21)
Kazakhstan (3rd):
Gold – 4, Silver – 2, Bronze – 2 (Total 8)
2019 Asian Athletics Championships (23rd)
Host City: Doha (Qatar)

Commonwealth Games

Since: 1930
2018 Commonwealth Games (21st):
Host City: Gold Coast, Queensland, Australia
Date: 4 – 15 April 2018
For 2022 (22nd): Birmingham (England)

Famous Players
Tejinder Pal Singh Toor (Athlete – Running)
Dutee Chand (Indian Runner)
Neeraj Chopra (Indian Javelin Thrower)
Manjit Singh (Indian Runner)
Jinson Johnson (Indian Runner)
Vikas Gowda (Discus Thrower)


Father of Indian Space Technology = Vikram Sarabhai
Father of Indian Nuclear Program = Homi J Baba
Father of Indian Missile Technology = APJ Abdul Kalam
The Supreme Commander of the Defence System in India = The President of India
The first Defence Minister of India = Baldev Singh
Headquarters of Indian Army + Indian Airforce + Indian Navy = New Delhi
National Defence Academy = Khadakwasla – Pune
National Defence College = New Delhi
College of Naval Warfare = Mumbai
Navigation and Signals School = Hyderabad
Airforce Academy = Hyderabad
Airforce Administrative College = Coimbattore
Helicopter Training School = Avadi
College of Air Warfare = Secunderabad
Airforce Technical College = Jalahalli
Institute of Aviation & Medicine = Bangalore
Indian Airforce Museum = New Delhi

Some Important Missiles of India

Surface to Surface:-

Ballistic Missiles:
Agni – V, Agni – VI, Surya (Intercontinental)
Agni –III, Agni – IV (Intermediate Range)
Agni – I, Agni – II (Medium Range)
Prithvi – I, II & III, Prahar (Short Range)
K – 15, K – 4, K – 5, Sagarika , Dhanush (Submarine Launched)
Prahar (Tactical Missile)

Cruise Missiles:
BrahMos – II, Shourya (Hypersonic)
BrahMos – I (Supersonic)
Nirbhay (Subsonic)

Surface To Air:
Akash (Medium Range)
Trishul, Maitri (Short Range)
Advanced Air Defence (Anti Ballistic Missile)

Air To Surface:
BrahMos – II (Hypersonic)
BrahMos – I (Supersonic)
Nirbhay (Subsonic)

Air To Air:
Astra, Novator, K – 100, Python,


List of Joint Military Exercises of India

Indian Army:
Slogan: Service Before Self
Chief of Indian Army = General Bipin Rawat

Joint Operation
Garuda Shakti = Indonesia
Kuruksheta = Singapore
Hand in Hand = China
Nomadic Elephant = Magnolia
Operation- X = Maldives
Surya- Kiran = Nepal
Yudh Abyas = USA
Lamity = Seychelles
Ekuverin = Maldives
Mitra Shakti = Sri Lanka
Shakti = France
Shatrujeet = USA
PRABAL DOSTYK = Kazakhstan
Ajeya Warrior = UK
Sampriti = Bangladesh
Austra Hindu = Australia
Khanjar = Kyrgyzsthan
Al – nagab = Oman
Harimanu Shakti = Malaysia
VINBAX => Viethnam
Maitree = Thailand
KAZIND = Kazakhstan
Dharma Guardian = Japan

List of Joint Navy Exercises of India

Indian Navy:
Slogan: May be the Lord of the Water be Auspicious unto us
Chief of Indian Navy: Sunil Lanba

Joint Operations
Varuna = France
Indra = Russia
Indiex = USA
IBSAMAR = Brazil & South Africa
Slinex = Sri Lanka
Dosti = Sri Lanka
Komodo = Indonesia & other countries
Shade = Japan & China
CORPAT = Indonesia
Konkan = UK
Malabar = USA & Japan
Simbex = Singapore
Jimex = Japan
Nasim Albarh = Oman
Milan = with 14 countries
AusiIndex = Australia
Sahyog HOP TAC =Vietnam

List of Joint Air force Exercises of India

Indian Air force:
Slogan: Touch the Sky with the Glory
Chief of Indian Airforce: Birender Singh Dhanona

Joint Operations
Garuda = France
Aviva Indhra = Russia
Red Flag = USA
Cope India = USA
Blue Flag = Israel
Indradhanush or Rainbow = UK
Desert Eagle = UAE
Eastern Bridge = Oman
Sian Bhart = Thailand
Pitch Black = Australia


Indian Space Research Organization (ISRO)
Established: 15th August 1969
Head Office: Bengaluru
Slogan : Space Technology in the Service of Humankind
Chairman : K Sivan

Defence Research & Development Organization (DRDO)
Established: 1958
Head Office: New Delhi
Slogan : Strength’s origin is in Science
Director : Dr. S Christopher

Council of Scientific & Industrial Research (CSIR)
Established: 26th September 1942
Head Office: New Delhi
Director : Girish Sahani

Vikram Sarabhai Space Centre (VSSC)
Established: November 21, 1963
Head Office: Tiruvananthapuram (Kerala)
Director: S Somanath

Hindustan Aeronautics Limited (HAL)
Formation: 1940
Headquarters: Bengalore
Products: Transport aircraft, Fighter aircraft &
Chairman: R. Madhavan


June to October
Rice, Ragi, Cotton, Jute

November to March
Wheat, Barley, Mustard

April to May

Food Crops:
Rice, Wheat, Barley, Ragi, Millet, Maize, Jower
Fiber Crops:
Cotton, Jute, Mista, Silk, Hemp
Cash Crops:
Sugar cane, Papaya, Potato, Onion, Tobacco
Coffee, Rubber, Tea
Oil Seeds
Coconut, Ground nut, Linseed, Rap seed, Mustard, Sesame, Sun flower, Soya been

Andhra Pradesh, West Bengal
Punjab, Uttar Pradesh
Uttar Pradesh, Maharashtra, Tamilanadu
Ground nut:
Andhra Pradesh, Bihar
Andhra Pradesh
Kerala, West Bengal
Rajasthan, Uttar Pradesh
Andhra Pradesh

Important food revolutions in India and World

Green Revolution: Foodgrains
White Revolution: Milk
Yellow Revolution: Oilseeds
Blue Revolution: Fish
Pink Revolution: Pharmaceutical
Brown Revolution: Leather productions
Grey Revolution: Fertilizers
Silver Revolution: Poultry
Golden Fiber: Jute Productions
Black Revolution: Petroleum products
Round Revolution: Potato

Father of Green Revolution = Norman Borlaug (World), M S Swaminathan (India)
Father of White Revolution = Vargees Kurian


1) Driven: The Virat Kohli Story by Vijay Lokapally
2) One Indian Girl by Chetan Bhagat
3) The Ministry of Utmost Happiness by Arundhati Roy
4) Kunjamma Ode to a Nightingale: M S Subbalaxmi by Laxmi Viswanathan
5) Six Machine (Auto-Biography) by Chirs Gayle
6) An Era of Darkness: The British Empire in India by Shashi Tharoor
7) The People’s President A P J Abdul Kalam by S M Khan
8) I Do What I Do: On Reform, Rhetoric & Resolve by Raghuram Rajan
9) Two by Gulzar
10) Hema Malini: Beyond the Dream Girl by Ram Kamal Mukherjee
11) Unstoppable: My Life So Far by Maria Sharapova (Tennis player – Russia)
12) Majuli: Resources & Challenges by Sanjiv Kumar Borkakoti
13) Speaking Truth To Power by P. Chidambaram
14) Delli Meri Delli: Before & After 1998 by Sheil Dikshit
15) Lethal White by J K Rowling
16) The Rule Breaker by Preeti Shenoy
17) Atal Ji Ne Kaha by Brijendra Rehi
18) 281 and Beyond by VVS Laxman (Auto-Biography)
19) No Spin by Shane Warne (Auto Biography – Australia)
20) Godman to Tycoon: Untold History of Baba Ramdev by Priyanka Pathak Narayan
21) Moving on, Moving forward: A Year in Office by M. Venkaiah Naidu
22) Brief Answers to the Big Questions by Stephen Hawking
23) Maharana Pratap: The Invincible Warrior by Rima Hooja
24) Simplicity and Wisdom by Dinesh Shahra
25) Undaunted: Saving the Idea of India by P. Chidambaram
26) We Are Displaced by Malala Yousafzai
27) Indian Fiscal Federation by Y. V Reddy


Recently Appointed Indian Ambassadors and High commissioners

Madagascar – Abhay Kumar on 3 Jan 2019

China – Vikram Misri on 7 Jan 2019

The United States – Harsh Vardhan Shringla on 11 Jan 2019

Colombia – Sanjiv Rajan on 2 Feb 2019

Argentina – Dinesh Bhatia on 6 Feb 2019

Bhutan – Ruchira Kamboj on 11 Feb 2019

Congo and Gabon – Nina Tshering La on 1 March 2019

Bangladesh – Riva Ganguly Das on 1 March 2019

Nigeria and Chad – Abhay Thakur on 1 March 2019

Vietnam – Pranay Kumar Verma on 1 March 2019

Saudi Arabia – Ausaf Sayeed on 8 March 2019

Uzbekistan – Santosh Jha on 13 March 2019

Fiji – Padmaja on 15 March 2019

Seychelles – Dalbir Suhag Singh on 1 May 2019

Eritrea – Subhash Chand on 10 May 2019

Indian Permanent representatives to international organizations

Conference on Disarmament – Gaurav Sobti

United Nations, New York – Syed Akbaruddin

World Trade Organization – J.S. Deepak


The updated Winners list of World Beauty Pageants 2019

Miss Universe Beauty Pageant

Miss World Beauty Pageant

Miss International Beauty Pageant

Miss Supranational Beauty Pageant

Beauty Pageant in India

Miss India

Info Link: Wold Beauty Pageant awards list 2019 download


List of India Ranking in world

Updated: 2019; List of the Global indexes reports of World and Indian

Human Development Index

Global Hunger Index

Press Freedom Index

Global Peace Index GPI

Global Corruption Index

World Happiness Index Report

Global Innovation Index

Social Progress Index

Global Competitiveness Index

World Economic Freedom Index

Global Youth Development Index

Global Gender Gap Index

Ease of Doing Business Index

Good Country Index

Global Cyber Security Index (GCI)

Global Connectivity Index (GCI)

Global Democracy Index (GDI)

Environmental Performance Index (EPI)

World Economic Forum

World Childhood Index

Global Talent Competitiveness Index (GTCI)

Global Liveability Index

E-Government Development Index (EGDI)

End of Childhood Index

Commitment to Reducing Index (CRI)

Global Energy Transition Index

Info Link: List of 26 different World Index Reports and India Ranking 2019 


Google is an American worldwide multinational technology giant company offers services and product in internet-related like online advertising, technologies, search, cloud computing, software and hardware

Founded: 4 September 1998

Founder: Larry Page (USA), Sergey Brin (Russia)

Head Office: California, Menlo Park, USA

CEO: Sunder Pichai (India) As On Aug 2019

Facebook is a famous social networking service which came after ORKUT, Google’s Product

Founded: 4 February 2004

Founders: Mark Zuckerberg (USA), Eduardo Saverin (Brazil – USA), Andrew McCollum (USA), Dustin Moskovitz (USA), Chris Hughes (USA)

Head Office: California, Menlo Park

Subsidiaries: Instagram, WhatsApp, Oculus VR, Private Core, Messenger

CEO: Mark Zuckerberg (USA) As On Aug 2019

Twitter is one of the famous in social networking services where users can post and interact with messages with tweets, which restricted to 140 characters word length

Founded: 21 March 2006

Founder: Jack Dorsey (USA), Evan Willians (USA), Noah Glass (USA), Biz Stone (USA)

Head Office: San Francisco, California (USA)

Subsidiaries: Vine

WhatsApp Messenger is a freeware and cross-platform instant messaging service uses the internet to make chat, voice calls, video calls

Founded: 2009

Founder: Jan Koun (USA), Brian Action (USA)

Head Office: California

Owner: Facebook

CEO: Jan Koum (USA) As On Aug 2019

Wikipedia is an online encyclopedia and its a largest and most popular general reference work on the internet

Founded: 15 January 2001

Founder: Jimmy Wales, Larry Sanger

Head Office: San Francisco, California (USA)

Owner: Wikimedia Foundation

Slogan: The free encyclopedia that anyone can edit

Yahoo is an internet service provider owned by Verizon communications through oaty Inc

Founded: 1994

Founder: Jerry Yang (Taiwan), David Filo (USA)

Head Office: Sunnyvale, California

LinkedIn is a social networking service used for professional networking, including employees posting jobs and job seekers posting their CV’s

Founded: 28 December 2002

Founders: Jean Lue Vaillant,  Reid Hoffman,  Allen Blue, Eric Ly, Konstantin Guericke, 

Head Office: Sunnyvale, California

CEO: Jeff Weiner

Subsidiaries: SlideShare

Slogan: Relationships Matter


Flipkart Bangalore based e-commerce company in India. Under brand name DigiFlip, Flipkart has launched its own product like tablets, USBs, and Laptops, etc …

Founded: 2007

Founder: Sachin Bansal & BinnyBansal

Head Office: Bengaluru

Subsidiaries: Myntra, Jabong.com, PhonePe, eKart,

Slogan: Every wish will be fulfilled

CEO: Kalyan Krishnamurthy

Myntra is a Bangalore based fashion e-commerce company founded in 2007 by IIT graduates.

Founded: 2007

Founders: Mukesh Bansal, Ashutosh Lawania, Vineet Saxena

Head Office: Bangalore

Owner: FlipKart (since 2014)

Snapdeal is the New Delhi based e-commerce company

Established: 2007

Founder: Kunal Bansal & Rohit Bansal

Head Office: New Delhi

Subsidiaries: FreeCharge

Paytm is one of the famous Indian electronic payment service provider and e-commerce companies. The name Paytm is for “Pay Through Mobile”

Founded: August 2010

Founder: Vijay Shekar Sharma

Head Office: Noida (Uttar Pradesh)

CEO: Vijay Shekar Sharma

Amazon is a USA based e-commerce and cloud computing company

Established: 5 July 1994

Founder: Jeff Bezos

Head Office: Seattle, Washington DC

Subsidiaries: A9.com, Amazon Web Services, Alexa Internet, Audible.com, Zappos, comiXology, Goodreads, Jungle.com, Twitch.tv, Souq.com

Slogan: Work hard, have fun, make history

Chairman: Jeff Bezos

Alibaba Group Holding Limited is a Chinese e-commerce company that provides C2C consumer to consumer,
B2C Business to consumer and B2B business to business sales services

Founded: 1999

Founder: Jack Ma (China)

Head Office: Hangzhou, Zhejiang (China)

Slogan: “To make it easy to do business anywhere”

Chairman: Jack Ma

eBay is a multinational e-commerce company

Founded: 3 September 1995

Founder: Pierre Omidyar (Iranian – American)

Head Office: San Jose, California (USA)

Subsidiaries: Kijiji, iBazar, Gumtree, Stubhub, Half.com

Slogans: World’s online marketplace Connecting buyers and Sellers Globally But it New, Buy it Now

Apple Inc is an American MNC headquartered in Cupertino, California

Founded: 1 April 1976

Founder: Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Ronald Wayne

CEO: Tim Cook (USA)

Subsidiaries: Filemaker Inc, Anobit, Braeburn, Capital, Beats Electronics

Uber Technologies Inc is an American tech giant company headquartered in San Francisco, California
(USA) presently operating in 570+ cities worldwide

Founded: 2009

Founder: Travis Kalanick (USA), Garret Camp (Canada)

Head Office: San Francisco, California (USA)

CEO: Travis Kalanick (USA)

Unified Payments Interface (UPI)
The Unified Payments Interface (UPI) is an instant payment system to transfer money between two parties
bank accounts. It is similar to NEFT/RTGS transfers

BHIM (Bharat Interface for Money)
BHIM is a mobile app in the memory of B R Ambedkar to push online payments Developed by the National Payments Corporation of India (NPCI). Launched by Prime Minister Narendra Modi in Delhi on December 30th, 2016

Features of BHIM App:
a) Transfers money to any bank account

b) Don’t need to register the Payee beforehand.

c) BHIM transfer money immediately and instant

d) Transfers money anytime, even on holidays

The State Bank of India launched its Unified Payments Interface App which is known as ‘SBI Pay’. The SBI Pay is specially designed for the UPI Payment system

Truecaller Pay
ICICI Bank has joined hands with Truecaller to launch a UPI based mobile app which is known as Truecaller app

National Political Parties in India

Political Parties In India Recognized Political Parties

List of different registered national regional political parties of India

Indian National Congress (INC)

Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP)

Communist Party of India (Marxist – CPI – M)

Communist Party of India (CPI)

Bahujan Samaj Party (BSP)

Nationalist Congress Party (NCP)

Aam Aadmi Party (AAP)

All India Trinamool Congress (AITC)

All India Anna Dravida Munnetra Kahzagam (AIADMK)

All India Majlis-e-IttehadulMuslimeen (AIMIM)

Biju Janata Dal (BJD)

Bodoland People’s Front (BPF)

Dravida Munnetra Kahzgam (DMK)

Janata Dal (Secular-JD(S))

Janata Dal (United-JD(U))

Jharkhand MuktiMorcha (JMM)

Rashtriya Janata Dal (RJD)

Rashtriya Lok Dal (RLD)

Samajwadi Party (SP)

Shiromani Akali Dal (SAD)

Shiv Sena (SS)

Telangana Rastra Samiti (TRS)

Telugu Desam Party (TDP)

YSR Congress Party (YSRCP)

For Complete Info about National Registered Political Parties

Maharatna and Navratna Companies in India

List of Mararatna and Navratna companies in India, there are 8 Mararatna and 16 Navratna in India as on Aug 2019

Info Link: Mararatna and Navratna companies 2019


GS – Biology

Vitamins were invented by Sir Frederick Gowland Hopkins. There are about 13 Vitamins that are essential to our human body to work well

Fat-Soluble Vitamins (4)
Vitamin A, Vitamin D, Vitamin E, Vitamin K

Water Soluble Vitamins (9)
Vitamin B1, Vitamin B2, Vitamin B3, Vitamin B5, Vitamin B6, Vitamin B7, Vitamin B9, Vitamin B12, and Vitamin C

Vitamin A (Retinol)
Available in: Milk, Egg, Cheese, Fish, liver, oil, Green Vegetables
Deficiency Disease: Night blindness, Xerosis, Conjunctiva Cornea

Vitamin D (Calciferol)
Available in: Fish liver oil Egg Milk
Deficiency Disease: Rickets (in children), Osteomalacia (in adults)

Vitamin E (Tocopherol)
Available in: Leafy vegetables, Milk, Butter, Vegetable oil, Sprouted, wheat
Deficiency Disease: Less Fertility

Vitamin K (Phylloquinone)
Available in: Green vegetables Tomato Soyabean oil
Deficiency Disease: Non – clotting of blood

Vitamin B1 (Thiamin)
Available in: Green vegetables, Groundnut, Seed, Egg, Liver, Pulses
Deficiency Disease: Beriberi

Vitamin B2 (Riboflavin)
Available in: Green vegetables, Milk, Meat
Deficiency Disease: Cracking of skin Reddish Eye

Vitamin B3 (Niacin)
Available in: Milk Meat Tomato Sugar cane
Deficiency Disease: Whitening of Hairs

Vitamin B5 (Pantothenic Acid)
Available in: Leafy vegetables, Tomato, Groundnut, Potato, Meat
Deficiency Disease: Pellagra

Vitamin B6 (Pyridoxine)
Available in: Grains, Liver, Meat
Deficiency Disease: Anemia Skin Disease

Vitamin B7 (Biotin)
Available in: Milk, Egg, Liver, Meat
Deficiency Disease: Paralysis Hair falling

Vitamin B9 (Folic Acid or Folate)
Availlabe in: Vegetables Pulses Liver Egg
Deficiency Disease: Anemia

Vitamin B12 (Cyanocobalamin)
Available in: Milk Meat
Deficiency Disease: Anemia Jaundice

Vitamin C (Ascorbic Acid)
Available in: Orange, Lemon, Tomato
Deficiency Disease: Scurvy

Some interesting facts about blood
1) The quantity of blood in the human’s body is 7% of the total weight

2) pH value of blood is 7.4

3) There is an average of 5 – 6 liters of blood in the human body

4) Female contains half a liter of bloodless in comparison to Male

60% of blood is Plasma
Plasma contains 90% of water + 7% of Protein + 0.9% Salt + 0.1% Glucose

When Fibrinitrogen and Protein is extracted from out of Plasma, the remaining part is called Serum

Red Blood Cells
Lifes span: 20 to 120 days

White Blood Cells (Leukocytes)
Life span: 1 to 2 days

Blood Platelets (Thrombocytes)
Life span: 3 to 5 days
Note:  The study of Blood is called as “Hematology”

Blood Groups
The blood Group or Blood Type is a classification of blood-based on the presence and absence of antigens
and inherited antigenic substances. There4 types of Blood Groups were available

A- Blood Group A+ and  A – (A Positive and A Negative)

B- Blood Group B+ and B – (B Positive and B Negative)

AB- Blood Group AB + and AB – (AB Positive and AB Negative)

O- Blood Group O + and O – (A Positive and A Negative)

Universal Blood Donor = Blood Group – O Negative

Universal Blood Recipient = Blood Group – AB

Sex Determination in Human Beings
1) In human beings, we determine the sex with the help of ‘sex chromosome’ i. e with the help of X & Y

2) in human beings, there are 46 chromosomes (23 Pairs), 22 Pairs are called Autosomes, other two
chromosomes are called sex chromosomes

3) The rest two chromosomes are the same in Female and are called X – X chromosomes (XX)

4) In Male, the rest two chromosomes are different and are called X – Y chromosomes (XY)

Baby Boy:
X – chromosome from Female and Y – chromosome from Male (X + Y)

Baby Girl:
X – chromosome from Female and Y – chromosome from Male (X + X)

General Science – Physics

Proton (p)
a) Discovered by E. Goldstein

b) Protons are positively charged

c) The absolute charge on the electron is + 1.6×1019 coulombs

Electron (e)
a) Discovered by J. J. Thomson

b) Electrons are negatively charged

c) The absolute charge on the electron is – 1.6×1019 coulombs

Neutron (n)
a) Discovered by J. Chadwick

b) It has no charge

Atomic Number (z)
The Atomic Number is defined as the total no. of protons present in the nucleus of an atom. It is denoted by ‘z’

Mass Number (A)
The Mass Number is defined as the sum of the total no. of nucleons (Protons & Neutrons) present in the nucleus of an atom

Isotopes define as Atoms which had the same atomic number but having different mass numbers

a) An isotope of Uranium is commonly used as a fuel in Nuclear reactors

b)Radioactive Isotopes, Cobalt-60 is used in the treatment of cancer

c) Radioactive Isotope Iodine-131 is used in the treatment of Goiter

d) Radioactive Isotope Arsenic-74 is used to detect tumors

e) Radioactive Isotope Sodium-24 used for Blood clotting

Isobars define as Atoms of having different elements with different atomic numbers which have the same mass number is known as Isobars

Atoms having same no. of neutrons

Noble Gases:
Neon (Ne), Krypton (Kr), Helium (He), Argon (Ar),  Xenon (Xe), Radon (Rn)
These are known as Noble Gases or Inert Gases or Rare Gases

Centripetal Force:
The force which acts on a body moving in a circular path and is directed towards the center is called ‘Centripetal Force’
Ex: Vehicle moving around a curved road required this force

Centrifugal Force:
The force that acts on a body moving in a circular path and is directed away from the center is called
‘Centrifugal Force’ or ‘Pseudo Force
Ex: This force helps to separate cream from milk

Newton’s First Law:
The first law is about the law of inertia which means body remains at rest or uniform motion in a straight line unless compelled to change its state by the action of an external force on it

Newton’s Second Law:
The rate of change of momentum of a body is directly proportional to the magnitude of the net force, in the same direction as the net force, and inversely proportional to the mass of the object
F =

Newton’s Third Law:
In every action, there is an equal and opposite reaction and both acts on two interacting objects Rocket is propelled by the principle of Newton’s Third Law

Pascal’s Law:
The pressure change at any point in a confined incompressible fluid is transmitted equally and undiminished in all directions throughout the liquid
Example: Hydraulic lift, Hydraulic Press, Hydraulic Brakes work on the basis of Pascal’s Law

Archimedes Principle:
When a body is partially or completely immersed in a liquid, it loses some of its weight. The loss in weight is
equal to the weight of the liquid displaced by submerged part of the body

Concave Mirror:
A Concave Mirror is a Mirror that is curved inward in the middle as it looks like a cave in middle. Concave Mirrors are commonly used in Torches, Searchlights and Vehicle headlights to get powerfull parallel
beams of light

Convex Mirror:
A Convex Mirror is a spherical reflecting surface (or any reflecting surface fashioned into a portion of a sphere) in which its bulging side faces the source of light.
Automobile enthusiasts often call it a fish mirror while other Physics texts refer it as a diverging mirror
Convex Mirrors are commonly used as rear mirrors in vehicles, enabling the driver to see traffic behind him/her to facilitate safe driving

Law of Conversation of Energy:
Energy can neither be created nor be destroyed, only one type of energy can be transformed into another
form of energy

Baking Soda:
Chemically Baking Soda is Sodium Hydrogen Carbonate (NaHCo3). Used for cooking of certain foods

Washing Soda:
Chemically, Washing Soda is Sodium Carbonate Decahydrate (Na2Co310H2O)
It is used as a cleaning agent for domestic purpose And used in the manufacturing of Caustic Soda, Glass,
Soap Powders, Borex and in the paper industry

Plaster of Paris (POP):
Chemically, Calcium Sulphate Hemi – Hydrate (2CaSO4H2O)

Used in making casts for the manufacture of Toys and Statues

Used in fractured bones casting 

For making the surface of walls and ceiling smooth. 

For making ‘chalk’ for writing on the blackboard

Light Amplification by Stimulated Emission of Radiation is a device that emits light through a process of optical amplification based on the stimulated emission of electromagnetic radiation. 

Discovered by Theodore H. Maiman (USA)
Barcode scanners, Cutting, Welding, holograms, Optical discs, used in the medical field to perform minute
operations etc 

Radio Detecting And Ranging, invented by Albert H. Taylor (USA), Leo C. Young (USA)
Radar is used for detecting an object by using radio waves to determine the range, angle or velocity of
objects. It can be used to detect ships, aircraft, spacecraft, terrains, guided missiles, motor vehicles, and weather formations

X – rays are part of the electromagnetic spectrum with a wavelength shorter than visible light.
X – Rays invented by Roentgen (Germany)
X – rays are widely used in medical fields

Nuclear Fusion:
The process of combining two lighter nuclei to the given heavier nucleus is called Nuclear Fusion or
Thermomolucular Reaction. Discovered by Hans Bathe (Germany)
Ex: Hydrogen bomb & Solar Energy

Nuclear Fission:
The phenomenon of breaking a heavy nucleus into two light nuclei of almost equal masses along with the release of a huge amount of energy is called Nuclear Fission.
Discovered by Ottohannan (Germany) & Fritz Strassman (Germany)
Ex: Atom Bomb

Carbon Dating:
The technique used to determine the age of fossils of animals and plants Rudiduim or Strontium Dating:
The technique used for finding the age of rocks

Important Standards of Human Health:
1) Normal Temperature of Man = 98. 4 F/ 36. 9 C
2) The average heart beat per minute in a normal man = 72
3) The no. of Chromosomes in the human cell = 46/ 23 pairs
4) The no. of bones in newly born infant = 300
5) The no. of bones in adult human being = 206
6) The largest Gland in the human body = Liver
7) The largest organ in the human body = Skin
8) The largest bone in the human body = Femur (Thigh bone)
9) The smallest bone in the human body = Stapes (Ear bone)
10) Blood Pressure (BP) = 120/80 (Systolic/ Diostolic)
11) Pulse Rate = 72 Pulse per Minute
12) Volume of ‘Blood’ in the body = 6 liters
13) No. of ‘Red Blood Cells (R. B. C) = In Male = 5 to 6 Million/Cumic mm, In Female = 4 to 5 Million/ Cubic mm
14) Life span of R. B. C = 20 to 120 days
15) Life span of White Blood Cells (W. B. C) = 1 to 2 days
16) Largest White Blood Cell = Monocytes
17) Smallest White Blood Cell = Lymphocytes
18) Haemoglobin (Hb) = In Male = 14 to 15 gm/100 cc of Blood, Female = 11 to 14 gm/100 cc of Blood
19) Haemoglobin (Hb) content in Body = 500 – 700gm
20) P.H of Urine = 6. 5 – 8
21) P. H of Blood = 7.36 – 7. 41
22) Normal Sperm count = 250 – 400 Million/Ejaculation
23) Menstrual Cycle = 28 days
24) Monopause age = 45 – 50 years
25) Blood clotting time = 3 – 5 minutes
26) Weight of Brain = 1300 – 1400 gm
27) Universal Blood Donor = ‘O’ Group
28) Universal Blood Receipient = ‘AB’ Group
29) Breathing time per minute = 18 times per minute
30) No. of Spinal Nerves = 31 Pairs
31) Largest Endocrine Gland = Thyroid Gland
32) Largest Gland = Liver
33) Largest Muscle in the Body = Gluteus Maximus or Buttock Muscle
34) Smallest Muscle in the body = Stapedius
35) Largest Vein = Inferior Vena Cava
36) Largest & longest Nerve = Sciatic Nerve
37) Longest Cell = Neurons (Nerve Cells)

Father of Various Fields/Science
1) Father of Agriculture = Dr. Norman Borlaug
2) Father of Algebra = Brahmaguptha + Al – Khawarizmi
3) Father of Ayurveda = Charaka
4) Father of Biology = Aristotle
5) Father of Botany = Theophrastus
6) Father of Computer = Charles Babbage
7) Father of Computer Science = George Boole + Alan Turing
8) Father of Economics = Adam Smith
9) Father of Electricity = Benjamin Franklin
10) Father of Electronics = Ray Tomlinson
11) Father of Geometry = Euclid
12) Father of Geography = Eratosthenes
13) Father of Geology = James Hutton
14) Father of History = Herotodus
15) Father of Internet = Vinton Cerf
16) Father of Law = Cicero
17) Father of Mechanics = Isaac Newton
18) Father of Phylosophy = Thales
19) Father of Physics = Albert Einstein
20) Father of Physiology = Claude Bernard
21) Father of Telephone = Alexander Graham Bell
22) Father of Architecture = Imhotep

1 Meter = 3. 28 Feet
1 Meter = 39. 37 Inches
1 Meter = 100 Centimetrs
1 Meter = 1000 Millimeters
1 Foot = 12 Inches
1 Inch = 2. 54 Centimeters
1 Centimeter = 10 Millimeter
1 Yard = 3 Feets


The envelope of Air that completely surrounded the Earth is known as Atmosphere
Atmosphere contains – Nitrogen 78%, Oxygen 21%, Carbon dioxide 0.03%, Helium 0.0005%, Ozone 0.0006%, Hydrogen 0.00005%

Atmosphere divided into 5 layers

1 This is the first layer of the Atmosphere, extended to a height of 18 km from Earth
2 Clouds passes in this layer (Fog, cloud, frost, rainfall, storms etc)
3 Upper limit of the Troposhere is “Tropopause”
4 Temperature decreases with height

1 Stratosphere extended to a height of 50 km
2 Ozone layer is in Stratosphere, and it absorbs ultraviolet radiations
3 Jet Aircrafts fly through this layer
4 Upper limit of the Stratosphere is “Stratopause”
5 Temperature rises from -600 C

1 Mesosphere extended to a height of 80 km
2 Upper limit of the Mesosphere is “ Mesopause”
3 Temperature decreases with height

Thermosphere (Ionosphere):
1 Thermosphere extended to a height of 640 km
2 It contains UV Rays, X – Rays & Solar radiation
3 Temperature increases rapidly with increasing height

1 Exosphere extended to a height of 960 km
2 The Density is very low and temperature becomes 55680 C

The highest distance between the Sun and Earth
Date: July 4th
Distance: 152 Million Kilometers

The least distance between the Sun and Earth
Date: January 3rd
Distance: 147 Million Kilometers

They can be divided into two types:
1 Tropical Grasslands
2 Temperate Grasslands

Tropical Grasslands:-
They have different names in different countries
Savanna: In Africa
Campos: In Brazil
Lanos : In Venezula & Columbia

Temperate Grasslands:-
They are known by the following names:
Prairies : In USA & Canada
Pampas : In Argentina
Veld : In South Africa
Steppes : In Eurasia (Ukraine + Russia)
Downs : In Australia & New Zealand

El – Nino & La – Nina:
El – Nino and La – Nina were considered as natural part of the global climate system which is El – Nino are
the warming of the central and eastern tropical Pacific, while La – Nina events are the reverse, with a
sustained cooling of these same areas

Note:  The longest day = June 21 (the date varies between June 20 to 22, depending on year and local time
Note : The shortest day = December 21

Solar System:
Some facts about solar system
Biggest Planet – Jupiter
Smallest Planet – Mercury
Nearest Planet to Sun – Mercury
Farthest Planet from Sun – Neptune
Nearest Planet to Earth – Venus
Brightest Planet – Venus
A planet with maximum satellites – Jupiter
Coldest Planet – Neptune
Hottest Planet – Venus
Heaviest Planet – Jupiter
Red Planet – Mars
Blue Planet – Earth
Morning/Evening Star – Venus
Earth’s Twin – Venus
Lord of the Heavens – Jupiter


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