Indian Polity and Indian Constituiton
Constitution of India is made by separate body known as Constituent Assembly, established in 1946 after the recommendation of Cabinet Mission Plan.
Cabinet Mission– All the members of cabinet mission are cabinet ministers in the British government
Members are, Patheic Lawrence (Chairman)
British Prime Minister Altee (Labour Party), who declared independence of India – August 15,1947.
Constituent Assembly, Total members are 389. Members elected from British Provinces(11) are 292, they elected indirectly by system of proportional representation by provincial assembly members. Each member represents almost 10 lakh people.
And 93 members are nominated from Princely states/Indian states(552). Remaining 4 members are taken from chief commissioner areas Delhi, Ajmer Merwara, Balochisthan and Coorg. But due division of Pakistan and Hindustan, members are reduced to 299.
B.R.Ambedkar lost his membership from Bengal but substitutely elected from Bombay.
Separate Constituent assembly was set up to Pakistan and India under Mountbatten plan 3 June 1947.
India Constituent Assembly members 299, British provinces(229) and Princely states(70).
Constituent Assembly was composite body, represented cross and cream of the society.
Constituent Assembly– INC seats 208
Muslim League seats 73
12 women members
36 dalit Commitees
15 nominated members
First Meeting of Constituent Assembly held on 9 December 1946 at central hall of parliament, Delhi. On Commencement day total 211 members were present and 88 were absent.
Dr. Sachidananda sinha was made temporary Chairman of the Assembly, addresed by Acharya Kripalani. On 11 Dec,1946 Dr. Rajendra prasad was electeld as standing President of Constituent Assembly unanimously, Dr.H.C Mukherjee as Vice president and B.N.Rao as Chief advisor( he is 1st Indian who became ICJ judge).
On 13 Dec, 1946 P.J. Nehru proposed objective resolution which was basis of preamble and accepted unanimously on 22 Jan, 1947.
Constituent Assembly appointed 22 committees, 12 substantial committees
10 procedural committees
15 minor committees
7 sub committees.
The most important is Drafting Committee headed by B.R.Ambedkar. Drafting Committee appointed on 29 August, 1947 consisting of chairman and six members
- Gopala Swami Ayangar
- Alladi Krishna Swami Aiyer
- Mahammad Sadullah
- N.Madhava Rao, Replaced by B.L.Mitter due to resign
- T.T.Krishnamachari, Replaced by D.P.Kethan due to death.
Draft Constitution was adopted as well as enacted by Constituent Assembly on 26 Nov 1949 but came into force on 26 Jan 1950.
Total time taken to prepare Indian Constitution is 2 years 11 months and 18 days( 09 Dec 1946 to 26 Nov 1949).
Actual working days –165 days
No of days taken to consider the draft – 114 days
Total no of sessions held, 11 sessions. Last session held on 24 Jan 1950.
Total expenditure incurred 64 millions
Total source Constitution – 60 Constitutions
Emblem of Constituent Assembly, Elephant.
Constituent Assembly also acted as temporary parliament and it elected its 1st President of India Dr. Rajendra Prasad on 24 Jan 1950.
National Flag adopted on 22 July 1947
National Anthem approved and sung on 24 Jan 1950.
Union powers committee – Jawaharlal Nehru
Union Constitution Committee – Jawaharlal Nehru
Provincial Constitution Committee – Sardar Patel
Drafting Committee – Dr. B.R. Ambedkar
Advisory Committee on Fundamental Rights and Minorities – Sardar Patel
Rules of Procedure Committee – Dr. Rajendra Prasad
States Committee – Jawaharlal Nehru
Steering Committee – Dr. Rajendra Prasad
Committee on the Functions of the Constituent Assembly – G.V. Mavalnkar
Order of Business Committee – B. Pattabhi Sitarammayya
Ad-hoc Committee on the National Flag – Dr. Rajendra Prasad
Special Committee to Examine the Draft Constitution – Alladi Krishnaswamy
Credentials Committee – A. N Sinha
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Constitution of India is made by separate body