Rachakonda Rulers and Musunuri Nayakas
Study Material for Telangana History Rachakonda Rulers and Musunuri Nayakas
1) The fall of Warangal in 1323 AD given space to the liberation movement launched by the confederation nobles of the Kakatiyas.
2) The chiefs of the Kakatiyas nobles were Musunuri Nayakas, the Recherla Velamas of Rachakonda and Devarakonda, the Reddy’s of Kondavidu and the Koppula chiefs.
Period of rule of kakatiyas nobles are listed below:
a) The Musunuri Nayakas ( 1325 – 1335 AD )
i) Musunuri Prolya Nayaka ( 1325 – 1333 AD )
ii) Musunuri Kapaya Nayaka ( 1333 – 1368 AD )
b) Velamas of Rachakonda and Devarakonda ( 1324 – 1475 AD )
i) Singama Nayaka I ( 1325 – 1361 AD )
ii) Anapota I ( 1361 – 1383 AD ) and Mada I ( 1361 – 1384 AD )
iii) Singama Nayaka II ( 1383 – 1399 AD ) and Vedagiri I ( 1384 – 1410 AD )
iv) Anapota II ( 1399 – 1421 AD ), Rao Madanedu and Mada Nayaka II (1421 – 1430 AD)
v) Singama Nayaka III or Sarvaga Rao and Lingama Nayaka ( 1430 – 1475 AD )
3) The primary sources of information about Musunuri Nayaka family are Musunuri Prolaya Nayaka’s 14th C.E Vilasa Copper plate grant and Musunuri Kapaya Nayaka’s Prolavaram (Guraja ) record of 1345 AD.
4) Reddi Queen Anitalli’s Kaluvacheru grant 1423 AD refers to Prolaya and Kapaya.
5) The first ruler of Musunuri Nayaka, Musunuri Prolaya Nayaka, was the grandson of Pota and the son of Pocha. Pocha and his three brothers served the last Kakatiya ruler Prataparudra.
6) In Prolaya period 1324 AD, entire Andhradesa was in under Delhi empire, Malik Maqbul was in charge at Warangal and a few Muslim garrisons were stationed at other forts.
7) In 1325 AD, Musunuri Prolaya Nayaka was the first person to rebel against the local administrators with Rekapalle as a center for activities.
8) Prolaya Nayaka defeated representatives of Tughlaqs multiple times and established himself as an independent ruler in the Godavari region.
9) Bhimesvara Purana narrates the appreciation of the services rendered by Annamantri, Prolaya Nayaka granted him Aredu Village as an Agrahara or gift of land.
10) Prolaya Nayaka contemporaries were Prolayaverma Reddy(independent ruler) was ruling Punginadu in the Guntur-Nellore tract south of the river Krishna with Addanki as his capital.
11) At the time of Prolaya Nayaka, Recherla Singama Nayaka successfully established his authority in the Mahabubnagar area.
12) The 14th-century Vilasa grant issued by Prolaya on the occasion of a lunar eclipse, while granting the village Vilasa in Konasima as an Agrahara to a Brahmin scholar Vennaya.
13) After Prolaya Nayaka, Kapaya Nayaka his cousin ascended the throne because he had no children, his younger brother Erapota Nayaka died in battle.
14) During Kapaya Nayaka period, Malik Bahauddin Gurshasp, Sultan Muhammad bin Tuglaq’s forces had attacked at destroyed Kampalli in 1327 – 1328 AD.
15) Ballala III raised an army and kept under the command of Musunuri Kapaya Nayaka in 1336 AD, proceeded to drive away Malik Maqbul, the Bain Wazir of Telangana
16) Musunuri Kapaya Nayaka assumed rulership of Andhradesa and assumed titles of ‘Andra Suratrana’ and ‘Andhradesadhisavara’.
17) In the period of Kapaya Nayaka, only Daulatabad and Gujarat remained in the under the domain of the Delhi sultan.
18) Kapaya Nayaka appointed his cousin Anavota Nayaka as the governor of the coastal area with Toyyeru initially and later shifted to Rajahmahendravaram (Rajahmundry) as its headquarters.
19) Anavota Nayaka popularly known as “Toyyeti Anavota Nayaka”.
20) Muppabhupa ruled Sabbinadu, the north-western region of the kingdom with Ramagiri (Adilabad) as its capital.
21) Muppabhupa was the patron of the Telugu poet Madiki Singana.
22) The chieftain, Manchikonda Kunya Nayaka, a son in law of Musunuri Kapaya Nayaka’s brother, built the fort at Korukonda. Kunnavaram, at the confluence(Junction point) of the Godavari and its tributary, the Sabari, is named after him
23) Musunuri Kapaya Nayaka made a matrimonial alliance with his sitter’s daughter to Kunaya’s son Mummadi Nayaka. Namaya Nayaka belongs to the Koppula family, was placed at Pithapuram.
24) From sources of Ganapesvaram record, Musunuri Kapaya Nayaka’s had authority over the Recherla Velamas of Amanagallu and Pillalamari.
25) Recherla Padmanayaks or Velamas cooperated with the Musunuris at the time of their revolts against the Muslims.
26) In Musunuri Nayakas times, Chieftain Singama Nayaka moved his capital to Rajukonda or Rachakonda
27) Musunuri Kapaya Nayaka successfully extended his authority up to Pillalamari and even further south, these details are mentioned in Pillalamari inscription of 1357 AD.
28) Musunuri Kapaya Nayaka extended his kingdom up to River Krishna and even captured some of the forts in the Krishna-Tungabhadra region.
29) Singama Nayaka’s elder son Anapota Nayaka, along with his brother, attacked Jallipalli and massacred all the inmates and allies, and assumed the title “somakulaparasurma” in 1361 AD.
30) Anapota Nayaka fortified the capital, Rajukonda or Rachakonda, and made it impregnable.
31) Musunuri Kapaya Nayaka lost his life in the battle that took place at Bhimavaram near Warangal in 1368AD, This was the end of the Musunuri Nayakas. No successors of Musunuri Kapaya Nayakas are known in history.
32) The Recherla Velama or Padmanayaka rulers, who rose to prominence in the 14th and 15th centuries, belongs to the Velama caste, they were the loyal subordinates of the Kakatiyas until they defeated by Tughlaq prince Ulugh Khan in 1323 AD.
33) Inscriptions of Rachakonda, Devarakonda, Bhongir, Inovolu, Garla, Bellamkonda, Devulammanagaram, Umamaheswaram, Orugallu, Simhachalam and Sri Kurumamu, etc were primary sources of information for the history of the Rachakonda and Devarakonda Velamas
34) The literacy sources of Rachakonda and Devarakonda history are Sangita Ratnakaram, Rasavarna Sudakaram, Madana Vilasabanam, Bhogini Dandakam, Harichandroupakyanam, Simhasana Dwatrimisika, Velugotiwari Vamshawali, Chatuvulu, Dhandakalelu, Surabivamsha Charitra and writings of Feristha and inscriptions works of contemporary kingdoms of Gajapatis, Reddy’s and Vijanagara kings.
35) The Recherla Velamas or Pandyanayakas were the subordinates of the Kakatiyas.
36) The founder of Recherla Velama family was Betalanayaka who belongs to Velama peasant caste
37) The Velugotivari Vamsavali described Betalanayaka’s prominence in the Amanagallu Nalgonda district areas. kakatiya ruler Ganapatideva ( 1199 – 1262 AD ) assigned Betalanayaka as the administration of Amanagallu
38) Betalanayaka and his sons, Dama, Prasaditya, and Rudra, all have occupied important positions during the reign of Kakatiya king Ganaptideva (1199 – 1262 AD ) and Rudramadvi ( 1262 – 1290 AD ).
39) The Recherla and the Malyala chiefs were the oldest of the Kakatiya feudatories.
40) Rudra the head of the Recherla Velama family played an important role in Ganapatideva’s reign.
41) The death of Kakatiya king Rudradeva and his brother Mahaveva in wars against the Yadava kings, Ganaptideva was imprisoned at Devagiri, at that time the nobles of Kakatiya revolt but Recherla Rudra stood loyal and drove away from the foreign invaders and governed the kingdom until Ganapatideva’s returned from captivity at Devagiri.
42) Ganapatideva had no sons, he nominated his elder daughter Rudramadevi as heir to the kingdom which she began to rule as co-agent from 1259 – 1260 AD under the name of Rudradeva Maharaja.
43) According to Velugotivarivarivamsavali, Prasaditya assumed title as “Kakatiya Rajya Sthapanacharaya” and “Raya Pitamahamka”.
44) Prasaditya upheld the cause of the queen co-agent Rudramadevi and obtained titles as “Kakatiya Rajya Sthapanacharaya” and “Raya Pitamahamka” as a reward for his loyalty. His brother Rudra obtained a high position in Queen Court and 3rd Recherla brother Damu Nayudu, looked after affairs of Amanagallu.
45) The Velugitivari Vamsavali mentioned Damu Nayudu assumed titles of Khadganarayana, Rayagaya Govala, Bhujabala Bhima and Pratiganda Bhairava
46) Prasaditya appointed as Nayaka under the Nayamkara system.
47) Pratapacharitra gives the credit for the introduction of the Nayamkara system to Rudramadevi’s successor Prataparudra, which means the system did not exist before this, i.e., not in Ganapatideva’s time.
48) Sources of inscriptions refer to Nayamkara or the office of Nayaka started as early as 1279 AD. So Prasaditya seems to be the first Recherla to have received the title as well as rights and duties of a Nayaka under the Nayamkara system, during the reign of Rudramadevi.
49) In Ainavolu inscription reference of Vennama Nayaka appeared
50) The “Velugotivarivamsavali” details about a battle in which Vennama Nayaka fought against the Delhi Sultanate. The incident happened during the first invasion by the Delhi Sultanate to Telangana in 1303 AD, when Allauddin Khalji sent an army under Malik Fakruddin Ulugh and Malik Jajju of Karra, in this battle kakatiyas lost a large army in this battle.
51) Vennam Nayaka son Erra Dacha and Sabbi Nayaka son Nalla Dacha both were also loyal to the Kakatiyas.
52) As a mark of appreciation, Prataparudra conferred on Erra Dacha the title “Pandyadalavibhala” and “Pandyaraya Gajakesari”.
53) The descendant of Erra Dacha-Singama Nayaka, Venna Nayaka and Echa Nayaka that the first independent Recherla Velamas ruler, Singam Nayaka emerged.
54) By 1323 AD, Warangal fort had fallen to Tughlaq prince Ulugh Khan
55) Historians opined Political disturbances in the Telugu region ultimately united all the chieftains; the Recherla Velamas of Rajakonda or Rachakonda, the Reddy’s of Kondavidu, the Koppulas of Pithapuram, etc. against Malik Maqbul, governor of Warangal, who had been appointed by Ulugh khan.
Note: According to Somasekhara, these rebel leaders gathered under the umbrella of Musunuri Kapaya Nayaka after the defeat of the common enemy Malik Maqbul.
56) Kapaya Nayaka assumed the titles of “Andhradesadhisvara” and “Andhrasuratrana”.
57) All rebel leaders rebelled against Delhi authority and established their independent kingdoms
Note: Whether these rebel leaders fought as one group with a common strategy or not, the fact remains that after the successful removal of the Tughlaq rule from the region, these rebel leaders emerged as rulers in their own right.
58) According to “Velugotivari vamsavali”, Recherla Velama chiefs, does not allude at all to Rachakonda until the time of Singama Nayaka I’s son and successor, Anapota Nayaka.
59) The “Velugotivari vamsavali”, states that Anapota Nayaka and Mada Nayaka (Singam Nayaka I’s second son), after their return from a battle victory, ruled Amangallu and divided between themselves cities of Rachakonda and Devarakonda.
Note: It is evident that Rachakonda was already in the possession of the Recherla Velama princes even before the time of Anapota.
60) In “Rasarnava Sudhakdrdm”, a work on rhetoric written by Anapota Nayaka’s son, Singama Nayaka II, states that Rajachala or Rachakonda was the hereditary capital of the Recherla Velamas family.
Note: This indicates the possession of the Recherla Chieftains had much earlier, probably during the time of Singam Nayaka I who must have built a fort there, and it probably became the primary capital of the Recherla Velamas family only in the times of Anapota Nayaka, and the fort subsequently became a stronghold of the Recherla Velamas family.
61) After the downfall of Tughlaq authority, Musunuri Kapaya Nayaka engaged in the battle with Bahamanis, Singama Nayaka used the opportunity to extend his kingdom as far as Eleshwaram on the banks of the Krishna and seized some of the forts in the doab between the Krishna and the Tungabhadra.
62) Musunuri Kapaya Nayaka also came into the conflict with the Chalukya princes, who sought help from the Reddy’s of Kondavidu in order to stop the attack.
63) During the battle of Musunuri Nayakas and Chalukya princes,Chalukyas imprisoned Singama Nayaka’s brother in law Chintapalli Singama Nayaka.
64) Singam Nayaka I carried out a vigorous attack on the fort of Jallipalli to free Chintapalli Singama Nayaka. Chalukyas were unable to hold the fort from attacks, they betrayal Singama Nayaka I and assassinated by one Tambalajiyya.
65) The descendants of Singama Nayaka I massacred all the Kshatriyas and their allies lodged in the fort after the news of Singama Nayaka’s I assassination in 1361 AD.
66) Singama Nayaka I’s sons Anapota I and Mada I ascended the throne was to avenge their father and assumed the title of “Somakula” and “Parasurama”.
67) Rachakonda was also known as “Rajukonda”.
68) Anapota I ruled from Rachakonda, he placed his brother Mada I on the throne of Devarakonda to make that region secure.
69) 3 inscriptions of Anapota I of 1365 AD, details about the construction of a stone fort, a reservoir called “Anapota Samudra” to protect the fort of Rachakonda.
70) After avenging their father, Anapota I and Mada I attacked Musunuri Kapaya Nayaka for the control of Warangal fort, they defeated and killed him at Bhimavaram battle in 1368 AD.
71) In the inscription of Anapota I at Ainavolu near Warangal details about Anapota I victories over the entire Telangana region.
72) Mada I and his successors ruled the territory around Devarakonda which went on to become the second capital of Recherla Velamas.
73) Anapota I, Mada I and cousin Naga, son of Yachama Nayaka, invaded the Reddy kingdom of Kondavidu.
74) The Velugotivari Vamsavali mentions Madha Nayaka and Anapota Nayaka defeated Anavema Reddy of Kondavidu at Dharanikota.
75) The Rasarnava Sudhakaram mentioned, Mada I had constructed a flight of steps to the sacred mountain of Sriparvatam
76) By 1384 AD the kingdom extended territories to the south of Devarakonda.
77) According to the inscription of Mada I at Umamaheswaram, Mada I’s rule extended over the land lying between Srisailam and the Vindhya mountains.
78) According to the inscription of Anapota at Simhachalam, coastal campaigns of the Recherla Velamas went up to Simhachalam.
79) Anapota I and Mada I were succeeded by their sons, Singama Nayaka II and Vedagiri I, respectively at Rachakonda and Devarakonda.
80) Singam Nayaka II was also known as “Sarvajna Singa Bhupala” and he was a great writer and poet.
81) Singama Nayaka II contributed to Telugu literature by composing two important books called “Rasarnava Sudhakaram” and “Ratnapanchalika”.
82) Conflicts between the Reddy’s and Velamas, the Vijayanagara rulers supported Reddy’s. Recherla Velamas were maintained close ties with the Bahamanis kingdom. This alliance came in use when the Vijayanagara ruler attacked Singama Nayaka II but was successfully repelled with the help of the Bahamanis. This battle was called “Kottakota”.
82) The Vijayanagara army chief Saluvaraya died in the battle of “Kottkota”.
83) An epigraph of 1387 AD, at Simhachalam, mentions that Recherla Velamas invaded of the Reddy kingdom during the early years of the reign of “Kumaragiri Reddy”.
84) Singama Nayaka II and his cousin Vedagiri I decided to conquer the northern districts of the Reddy kingdom by taking advantage of the disturbance for the throne between Peda Komativema Reddy and Kumaragiri Reddy.
85) When the Recherla Velama chiefs were engaged in coastal Andhra with the Reddy’s of Rajamahendravaram. Bukka II of Vijayanagara attacked the fort of Panugal in Mahbubnagar district and occupied Warangal fort, a strategic fort of the Recherla Velamas, in 1397 AD.
86) After that, Velamas lost to Vijayanagara even though they took to support and help of the Bahamani ruler.
87) Singama Nayaka II and Vedagiri I also came into conflict with the Gajapatis of Orissa, these details are mentioned in inscriptions at Srikurmam in Srikakulam district and at Simhachalam.
88) In 1399 AD Singama Nayaka II’s sons Anapota II and Rao Madanedu succeeded Singama Nayaka II. Mada Nayaka II succeeded his father Vedagiri I at Devarakonda.
89) Recherla Nayakas provoked a conflict with the reddy’s of Rajamahendravaram (Rajamundry) by offering asylum/shelter to Annadeva Choda, a chief in the lower Godavari belt who had thrown out of his kingdom by the Reddy’s of Rajamahendravaram.
90) Madanedu of Devarakonda defeated the Reddy’s and annexed Annadeva Choda’s kingdom, but within no time Pedakomati Vema Reddy, with the help of Bahamanis, restored the lost territory to Annadeva Choda.
91) In the battle of 1419 AD, Macha Reddy, brother of Pedakomati Vema Reddy was killed. Immediately after this, Recherla Velamas, Pedakomati Vema Reddy attacked Devarakonda and killed Vedagiri. In 1420 AD, the Velamas killed Pedakomati Vema Reddy and hanged him at the entrance of the Devarakonda fort.
92) After this incident, the Reddy kingdom of Kondavidu disappeared from the political scenario of Andhra Desa
93) Anapota II, his brother Rao Madanedu ascended the throne as regent at Rachakonda, because Anapota’s son Singama Nayaka III was too young to be king.
94) Rao Madanedu and his brothers Dacha, Vallabhanedu, Vedagiri and Damanedu helped the young king in times of war and also in the administration of the kingdom.
95) Rao Madanayaka, younger brother of Anapota II ascended the throne at Rachakonda in 1423 AD.
96) In 1425 AD, Anapota II was succeeded by his son Singama Nayaka III and Mada II was succeeded by his son Vedagiri II and Lingama Nayaka at Devarakonda.
97) During the times of 1433 – 1438 AD, Bahamanis of Bidar occupied the forts of Medak, Warangal, and Bhuvanagiri
98) Except for Devarakonda, the rest of the Recherla Velama kingdom was under control of Bahamanis.
99) Lingama Nayaka also known as Lingamanedu was unable to resist the Bahamani attacks, sought the help of the Orissa rulers Kapileshwar Gajapati. He accepted the request of Lingama Nayaka and sent a large force to Devarakonda against the Bahamanis.
100) Lingama Nayaka reoccupied his lost territories such as Orugallu and Bhuvanagiri in 1461 AD, these details mentioned in the inscription of Kapileshwara Gajapati of Orissa
101) Rao Dharma Rao, son of Lingama Nayaka, was appointed to rule over Orugallu.
102) The integrity of the kingdom of Rachakonda and Devarakonda came to an end in the last years of Lingama Nayaka.
103) Bahamani Sultan Muhammad Shah II defeated Lingama Nayaka and occupied Rachakonda and Devarakonda.
104) After the Lingama Nayaka, his brother Suranedeu, son Parvata Rao and grandson Lingama Nayaka II ruled over Devarakonda as subordinates of the Bahamanis, paying them some annual tribute and later on they came under the Vijayanagaris.
105) During the last phase of Velamas, ie., the reign of Lingama Nayaka, Kapileshwara Gajapati of Orissa came to assist Velama chief of Devarakonda at the request to overcome the invasion of Humayun Shah of Bahamani dynasty.
106) Source of Velamas period contemporary works in Telugu such as “Sakala Niti Sammatamu” of Madiki Singana, “Rukmangada Charitra” of Praudha Kavi Mallana, “Kridabhiramamu” of Srinatha, “Bhaskara Ramayanamu”, “Harivamsamu” of Errapreggada, “Pratapa Chharitra” of Ekambranatha and “Siddheswara Charitra” of Kase Sarvappa.
107) The “Velugotivari Vamsavalli” details about the history of the Recherla Velamas and Devarakonda.
108) Theory of “Saptanga” by Kautilya. The Saptanga includes King, Minister, Land, Fort, Treasury, Army, and friend.
109) The contemporary works on polity as “Andhra Kamandakamu” cited by Singana. “Rukmangada Charitra” emphasizes “Saptanga”, according to it, Pati (King), Amatya (Minister), Durgamu (Fort), Kshiti (Land), Mitra (Friend), Dhanamu (Treasury) and Sena (Army).
110) Musunuri Nayakas and Velama kings avoided epithet “Mahamandaleshwara” from their Prasasti because it is the reason that they belong to the “Chaturthakula” or “Fourth Caste”. As in Hindu Dharma Sastras, they did not permit them to assume regal titles as they did not belong to the Kshatriya caste which claimed descent from the Sun God or the Moon good.
111) Madiki Singana draws a verse from “Kumara Sambhavam” that the king should be thorough in the Sapta upayas (Seven Strategies), which comprise Samamu (Conciliation), Bhedamu (Creating a division), Danamu (Charity), Dandamu (Punishment), Maya (Deception), Upeksha (Ignoring), and Indrajala ( Magic).
112) Rukmangada Charitra is f the art of riding elephants, horses, chariots, and wielding different kinds of weapons
113) Inscriptions reveal that Musunuri Kapaya Nayaka was expert statecraft, had a Vimala Charitra and had also an authority in the observance of Dharma Karmas ( The laid down pious deeds ).
114) Sarvagna Singa Bhupala was a great scholar, wrote a work on music titled “Rasarnava Sudhakaram”.
115) According to the Rukmangada Charitra, a king who rules his kingdom without morality and justice would be deprived of his wealth and becomes extremely poor
116) Joint rule in those days called “Dvairajya” by the king and the crown prince (Yuvaraja), which was probably meant practical training in the art of administration to the crown prince.
117) “Sakal Niti Sammatamu” states that the crown prince (Yuvaraj) and the minister (Amatya) were like two shoulders to the king.
118) The head of the council of ministers was called Pradhani while the other members were Mantrins.
119) Mallana prescribed some qualities of the minister. They are Suddhi (Righteousness), Buddhi (Wisdom), Santi (Composure), Vriddhacharamu (Tradition), Vivekamu (Discrimination), Sraddha (Devotion), Dhairyamu (Courage) and Prabha Buddhi (Loyalty)
120) Adiki Singana discusses various aspects of a fort, its importance, the kinds of forts, methods of attacks and defense, garrison, etc. in his “Durga Samrakshanamu” on the subject of Sakal Niti Sammatamu
121) Devarakonda and Bhuvanagiri were the hill forts or Giri Durgas.
122) The Draksharamam inscription of Anapota calls himself as “Dvipijeta”.
123) Rachakonda, Devarakonda and Bhuvanagiri were the main hill forts of the Recherla Velamas, while Orugallu, Amanagallu, Ananthagiri, Aruvapally, Podichedy, Anumula, Pangal and Jallipali were their land forts.
124) Kshiti Pancham (Produce of the land paid by the farmer to the king), is known as “Arambamu”.
125) Taxes on homes are called “Illari”.
126) The inscriptions of Velamas details about infantry:
127) Selagola means “Standing for spear”
128) Vilukandru means “ring to bowmen”
129) Kaijitagandru means “Group of Warriors or Soldiers who drew their salaries either daily or weekly”
130) Ekkati means “A soldier kept in reverse capable of handling heavy weapons like maces”.
131) Weapons in the Velamas period were Sabres, Daggers, Maces, Javelins, Spears, Battle Axes, Discs, etc.
132) The Shield was known as “Arige” or “Dalu”.
133) The military officials were known by “Padinayaka”, “Padau”, “Dalavay”, and “Dandanayaka”.
134) Rachakonda and Devarakonda Velama kingdoms were divided into administrative units called “Bhumi”, “Nadu”, “Sthala” and “Grama”.
135) The Talari was the head man of the village of the kingdom.
136) Karanam was the village accountant who maintained land records, tax rates
137) Bari kapu was the village policeman of the kingdom. He maintains the boundaries of the village and guards agricultural fields against wild beasts and thieves.
138) Kavile sampratis are record keepers who maintained registers, writes various orders of the king pertaining to the collection of revenue and expenditure.
139) Rayasams are like private secretaries(scribes) to the king. Qualifications for Rayasams are quick in hand, ie., Should write many scripts and should be proficient in various languages.
140)In the Nayakas period social mobility had two phases:
a) Phase I: Lowest Caste and Tribes were Sanskritized and brought into.
b) Phase II: Sanskritized people were drawn into the caste society of Sudras.
141) Brahmins were expected to perform Panchayajnas, ie., Pitru Yajna (Worshipping of Ancestors), Guru Yajna (Worshipping of Priests), Evan Yajna (Worshipping of God), Brahma Yajna (Worshipping of Brahmins), and Go Yajna (Worshipping of Cows), and Shatkarmas namely, Yajna (Sacrifice), Danam (Donation), Pratigrahana (Accepting Donation).
142) The Pastoral communities such as Gollas, Kurumas, and Tribes such as Pulindas, Koyas, Boyas, etc., were drawn into the caste society of Sudras.
143) The Sayampet inscription of Rao Dharma Nayaka of AD 1429 give details about 12 Virtues of the village to Brahmins as share.
144) Birudavali means “Entitlement”.
145) The Vaisyas who were locally called “Komatis” were the traditional traders in Telugu country.
146) InChalukya-Cholas times, the Vaisyas of Coastal Andhra organized into a caste-cum-professional guild known as “Nakaram” at 18th different places and headquarters at Penugonda in West Godavari district.
147) In Kakatiya times, the Vaisyas were organized into Desi, Nanadesi, Ubhaya Nanadesi, Nakaras who were deals with different items ranging from grain to elephants
148) The Vaisyas had competitor Balijas, who were mentioned as “Balanjasettikandru”. They claimed themselves as “Virabalanjara Dharma Pratipalithulu”. They were organized into another guild, known as “Pekkandru” which name itself indicates that it is an itinerant(travelling from place to place) guild.
150) The Sudras were huge in population, ranged from Sat-Sudras to Panchamas.
151) Sat-Sudras include the Velamas, the Kammas, the Reddy communities.
152) Among kapu there were 14 branches:
153) Kapu community people called themselves as “Settis”.
154) The Panchnamvaru who deals carpentry, pottery, blacksmith, masonry, and goldsmith claim their origin from the five faces of Brahma and claim their equality with the Brahmins.
155) Tambalas was another community, most were saints. they claimed equality with the brahmins.
156) The Panchamas constitute Malas and Madigas.
157) The Malas constitute agricultural labor and Madigas prepared accessories for agriculture.
158) According to Rukmangada Charitra, women should not be angry even if her husband desires another woman.
159) Velama kings of Rachakonda and Devarakonda had links with the Vaishnavate acharyas of Srirangam Desika perhaps Vedanta Desika of Srirangam was the teacher of Venna, the son of Mada Nayaka I. By efforts these acharyas the two opposite schools of Vaishvate emerged into two well-defined sects, the Vadagalai or the northern school, and the Tengalai or the southern school.
160) Vedanta desika was the leader of the Vedagalai school, and Pillai the Tengalai is the leader of the Tengalai school.
161) Velama kings gifted in cash and also kind to the temples of both Saivate and Vaishnavate cults,
Gifts made to the temples are given:
|Inscriptions||King||Date||Types of gifts|
|Simhachalam temple||Anapota I||1380 AD||Five Tanks|
|Simhachalam temple||Singa II||1387 AD||Tiruvalikakola|
|Simhachalam temple||Vedagiri I||1404 AD||Tankalu 80|
|Srikurmam||Vedagiri I||1405 AD||100 Madas|
|Kandi Konda||Venna||1375 AD||Lands|
|Domalapalli||Mada I||1367 AD||Lands|
|Ayanavolu||Anapota I||1369 AD||Ayanavolu village|
|Murupunutala||Vedagiri I||1399 AD||Murupunutala Village|
|Sayampet||Rao Dharma Nayaka||1469 AD||10 Vrittis of village Macherla|
162) The temples of Saivates are given below:
|Rachakonda||Anapota I||1365 AD||Bhairava Prastishta||Rachakonda|
|Umamaheswaram||Mada I||1376 AD||Mandapa||Umamaheshwaram|
|Ayanavolu||Anapota||1369 AD||Walls construction||Ayanavolu|
163) The Vaishnavate temples are given below:
|Domalapally||Mada I||1367 AD||Chennakesava Pratista||Domalapally|
164) Velamas were loyal Vaishnavates, they extended their patronize to Vedanta Desika and constructed new Vaishnavate temples.
165) Some of the inscriptions of the Rachakonda and Devarakonda Velamas details about monetary grants given to the temples of Simhachalam and Srikakulam etc.
166) The following table shows the gifts to the temples given by Velama kings:
|Inscription||King||Date||Types of grants|
|Simhachalam temple||Anapota I||1380 AD||5 Tankas|
|Simhachalam temple||Vedagiri I||1404 AD||80 Tankas|
|Srikurumam||Vedagiri I||1405 AD||100 Madas|
165) The Kakatiya rulers followed the policy of deforestation and land reclamation for the expansion of Agriculture. Velma’s of Rachakonda and Devarakonda followed the Kakatiya policy.
166) The region ruled by Rachakonda and Devarakonda Velama kings lies mostly in the present-day districts of Mahaboobnagar and Nalgonda.
167) The following table shows the number of tanks and wells constructed by different kings of Rachakonda and Devarakonda:
|Inscription||King||Date||Types of Irrigation|
|Rachakonda||Anapota I||1365 AD||Anapota Samudram||2 Wells|
|Rachakonda||Anapota I||1380 AD||Raya Samudram||—–|
|Devulanagaram||Nagambhika Queen of Rao Mada Nayaka||1429 AD||Naga Samudram||—–|
|Sannad||Vedagiri||1429 AD||Vedagiri Tatakamu||—–|
|Sannad||Madhava Rao||1429 AD||Parvata Rao Tatakamu||—–|
|Sannad||Madhava Rao||1429 AD||Madha Rao Cheruvu||—–|
168) First Type Village: Villages that were held directly by the state where revenues collected directly by employing its own administrative machinery. There were generally known as “Bhandaaravada Gramas” or “Kara villages”. The Mohammedan rulers called them Kara Villages as “Khalsa or Khas lands which simply meant “Crown Lands”.
169) Second Type Village: “Nayaka Villages” for bestowed in service of the military to the state and also for officials of state and feudatories
170) The areas which were situated around the forts of Rachakonda, Devarakonda, Bhuvanagiri, Golconda, Sirikonda, Panugallu, Kolanupaka, Pillalamarri, Hanamkonda, Orugallu, etc. were held by Nayakas.
171)Third Type Village: Villages held by groups of people or institutions like the temples, paying nothing or a nominal amount as revenue to the state. They were called “Brahmadeyas” or “Devadana Lands”.
172) The following table based on inscriptions gives the details of Brahmadeyas and Devadana land tenures.
|Aynavolu||Anapota I||1369 AD||Aynavolu Village||—–|
|Murupunutala||Vedagiri||1399 AD||Murupunutala Village||Land Grants|
|Domalapally||Mada I||1367 AD||Land Grants||Land Grants|
|Kandikonda||Venna||1375 AD||—–||Land Grants|
|Sayampeta||Rao Dharma Nayaka||1464 AD||Maccerla Village and Land Grants||Maccerla Village and Land Grants|
173) Sarvajna Singama II son of Anapota I, was an eminent poet, composed works on “Rasarnava Sudhakaram”, “Ratna Panchalika” and “Sangeeta Sudhakaram”. His son Rao Madha Naya wrote a book in Sanskrit, “Raghaviyam”, a commentary on Sanskrit Ramayana.
174) Naganatha, Sanskrit poet of Anapota I, wrote “Madanavilasa Bhanamu”.
175) Visveshwara, the court poet of Singamabhupala wrote a book on ‘Alankara Sastra’ by name “Chamatkara Chandrika”.
176) Sakalya Mallubattu scholar in Sanskrit composed “Nirdhyoshta Ramayanam”, “Udara Raghavamu” and “Avyaya Sangraha Nighantuvu”. He is also called as “Chaturbhasha Kavita Pitamahanka”.
177) Telugu poet Pusapati Naganantha worked on “Vishnupuranam”, It describes victories of Velama kings.
178) Guarana wrote “Navanatha Charitra” and “Harichandropakhyanam” in Telugu.
179) Koravi Goparaju wrote “Simhasana Dvatrimshika”, during the period of Velama kingdom.
180)Bammara Pothana is one of the great poets, wrote “Bhogini Dandakam”, “Andhramaha Bharatham” and “Veerabhadra Vijayam”.
181) Machaldevi, the courtesan of the last ruler of the Kakatiya dynasty Prataparudra maintained Chitrasalas (Painting Museums) in Orugallu, describes Kridabhiramam.
182) Poet Potana one of the greatest poets, wrote Maha Bhagavatam, described the process of mixing five important colors with which paintings are drawn.
183) Recently discovered paintings in a temple in Rachakonda exactly configure the descriptions of the work of the Potana.
184) One of the stone slabs had a painting of episodes of Putrakameshthi and Asvamedha Yagas describes in Ranganath Ramayana ( Balakanda ).
185) Painting of Dasaratha is conducting Putrakameshthi Yajnam, on the bank of river Sarayu, under the guidance of Saga Vasishta and Santa-Rishyashrunga, with his three wives Kausalya, Sumitra and Kaikeyi, the last one with the wicked face.
186) Padmanayakas had a unique title as“Astadika Raya”.
187) Vaishnavism was patronized by the Padmanayakas and the Vaishnavite god Hanuman was promoted in every corner of the kingdom.
188) Pandavulagutta in Warangal district is considered to be the most varied site of pre-historic and historic cave paintings in Telangana.
188) Gravitation technology was used in pumping water from the Secret Lake(Durgam Cheruvu) to the Golconda fort during the 16th century. Golconda was one of the earliest kingdoms in the world to use such technology when electricity and motors were not invented.
189) Technology of gravitational suction of water was first used by Raja Bhoja inside the tank bund of Bhopal Lake and on a stream in Bhojpur in Madhya Pradesh during the 11th century.
190) The Bhoja composed a work called “Samaraanagana Sutradhaara”.
191) Padmanayakas had significant architectural features a) Construction of temples on top of hills.
b) Construction of temples for Lord Narasimha in caves on top of hills.
c) Sculptures of Bhairava, Hanuman and Ganesha on the natural borders near the fortifications of temples at 8 cardinal points.
192) The places where the Padmanayakas temples and forts are found are given below:
e) Ramagiri Khilla
g) Thirumalanatha Konda
h) Pedda Revalla
193) Rachakonda and Devarakonda Velamas initially patronized Saivism and subsequently patronized Vaishnavism
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