Kakatiya’s Age Dynasty Rulers
History of Kakatiya’s Age Dynasty Rulers Study Material MCQ Bit Bank Download
List of Ruler of Kakatiya Dynasty chronology
a) Kakartya Gundyana
c) Eriya Rashtrakuta
d) Betaraja I ( AD 995 – 1052 )
e) Prolaraja I ( AD 1052 – 1076 )
f) Betaraja II ( AD 1076 – 1108 )
g) Prolaraja II ( AD 1116 – 1157 )
h) Rudradeva First Phase ( AD 1158 – 1162 )
Independent Kakatiya’s Sovereign Kakatiya Kingdom
i) Rudradeva Second Phase ( AD 1163 – 1195 )
j) Mahadeva ( AD 1195 – 1199 )
k) Ganapatideva ( AD 1199 – 1262 )
l) Rudramadevi ( AD 1262 – 1289 )
m) Prataparudra II ( AD 1289 – 1323 )
1) From 10th C.E to 13th C.E A.D in the Deccan, Telugu region was ruled by the Kakatiyas Kings, Kannada region ruled by the Hoyasalas Kingdom, Maratha region ruled by Yadavas and Tamil region ruled by the Pandyas.
2) The kakatiyas early were worked as the army officials under the rashtrakuta rulers. For Kalyana Chalukyas, Kakatiyas worked as administrators and chief of forts
3) Kakatiyas rulers made Anumakonda(Hanmakonda) and Orugallu(Warangal) as capitals and ruled the Telugu speaking areas of Telangana, Andhra, and Rayalaseema for more than 3 centuries
4) Socrces of Study of Kakatiyas History
5) Kakatiyas inscriptions give details about Socio-Economic conditions, wars and conquests, and military conditions.
6) During Kakatiyas time Gold, Silver and Copper coins were minted. Among the coins, Kesari Gaddyana, Madas and Kesari’s and Pati-Varas knew to be important
7) Orugallu fort, Kakatiya Toranas, thousand pillar temple at Hanmakonda, Ramappa temple at Palampet, other temples at Pillalamarri, Nagulapudu and Ghanapuram etc were famous Kakatiyas monuments
Kakatiyas Inscriptions Details
|Inscription||Period||King/Officer who issued||Remarks|
|Magallu Inscription||AD 956||Eastern Chalukyan King Danarnava||Donation of the village Magallu to a Brahmin by Kakatiya Gundama|
|Hanumakonda 1000 pillar temple Inscription||AD 1063||Rudradeva||Independence Declaration in 1063 by Rudradeva|
|Draksharamam Temple Inscription||AD 1158||Prola II’s minister Inangala Brahmireddy||Prola II’s son Rudradeva’s accession to the throne|
|Bayyaram Inscription||AD 1219||Kakatiya Ganapatideva’s sister Mailamba||Digging of Bayyaram Tank, by Mailamba|
|Motopalli Inscription||AD 1244||Ganapatideva||Remissions to the foreign merchants|
|Malkapuram Inscription||AD 1261||Ganapatideva||References to Vidyamandapas|
|Chandupatla Inscription||AD 1289||Rudramadevi’s servant Puvvulamummadi||Rudramadevi lost her life revolt of Ambadeva, to get her sadgati, her servant Puvvulamummadi made a land donation to local Somanantha temple|
|Tripurantakam Inscription||AD 1291||Ambadeva, Rudrama’s official||Details about Victories of Ambadeva|
|Salakalaveedu Inscription||AD 1317||Prataparudra II||By the orders of king Deveri Nayaka donated Sakalaveedu village of Eruvubhumi to God KaveriRanganantha as a symbol of victory over the Pandhyas. It refers to many taxes also.|
|Kolunupalli Inscription||AD 1321||Prataparudra II||Donations to ChennaKeshavaSwamy temples.|
Literary sources of Kakatiya Period
|Palkurki Somanatha||Pandiradya Charitam, Basavapuranam||Telugu||Conditions of Saivism and other religions during the Kakatiya period|
|Baddena||Neetisaram or Neeti Sastramuktavali||Telugu||Details about Raja Neeti and Raja Darma|
|Kolanu Ganapatideva||Shivayogasaram||Telugu||History of Indaluri Nayakas|
|Venukonda Vallabharaya||Kridhabhiramam||Telugu||Description of the life of conditions of the people living in the Warangal Fort|
|Vidhyanatha||Prataparudriyam or Prataparudra Yahsho bhushanam||Sanskrit||Court poet of Prataparudra II|
|Jayapa Senanai||Nrutyarathnavali||Sanskrit||Explains about characteristics of Nrutya and Natya|
|Tikkana Somayaji||Andhra Mahabharatam||Telugu||Ganapatideva’s friend Nellore King Manumasiddi’s court poet|
|Tikkana Somayaji||Nirvachanottara Ramayanam||Telugu||Viraata Parvam|
Contemporary Writings during Kakatiya Period
|Telugu Writings||Sanskrit Writings||Other Languages|
|Pandiradya Charitam, Basavapuranam, Palkuri Somanantha||Prataparudra’s Yashabhushanam by Vidhyanath cour poet of Prataparudra II||Tariq-i-Faristha by Faristha|
|Neetisaramuktavali by Baddena, details about Political nature in kakatiyas times||Nruyarathnavali by Jayapa Senani||Fut-wut-salatin by Isami|
|Pratapacharitam by Ekamaranatha||—–||Barani’s Tariq-I- Ferozshahi|
|Kridhabhiramam by Venukonda Vallabharaya||—–||Rehalla by Iban Battuta|
|Siddeshwara Charitra by Kashe Sarvappa||—–||The Travels by Marco Polo|
|Neetisaram details about Kakati Rudradeva’s writings and his administration||—–||—–|
8) In Danarnava’s Magallu inscription ( AD 956 ) Eastern Chalukyan king, for the first time, Kakartya Gundyana and his preceding three generations are mentioned. Historians opined that he is the founder of the Kakatiya dynasty.
9) According to some historians, kakatipuram village was the early place of Kakatiya, with that they got name Kakatiya, however, some defers this version
10) According to some historians, kakatiyas worshipped ‘Kakati’ the local mother goddess(Jain Goddess), so they got the name ‘Kakatiyas’.
11) Kumaraswamy Somapeethi, the commentator on the Prataparudriyaya of Vidyaatha, mentioned Kakatiyas were worshiped Kakati goddess one of the forms of goddess Durga and they got name Kakatiyas.
12) The author of Krihdhabhiramam, Vinukonda Vallabharaya in his work mentioned about the idol Kakati goddess
13) According to Sitabkhan’s inscription, Sitabkhan reinstated the idol of Kakati, in the Warangal fort, when the idol was destroyed by the army of Delhi Sultans.
14) Kakati was considered as one of the forms of Durga goddess and she worshiped along with Ekaveera, a village goddess.
15) Historians opined early members of the Kakatiyas family were feudatory Kakatiyas. Kakartya Gundyana was first, his name mentioned in Danarnava’s Magallu Inscription
16) Kakartya Gundyana to Rudra I or Rudradeva, 956 AD to 1162 AD was known as Feudatory Kakatiyas.
17) Rules of Kakatiyas: AD 1158 – 1162 called as Feudatory Phase and AD 1163 – 1195 called as Independent Sovereign rule
18) Kakartya Gundyana played a prominent role in the conquest of Bezavada fort under the Rashtrakuta Krishna II, but Kakartya Gundyana lost his life in the Peruvangooru battle with Vengi Chalukyas.
19) Rashrakuta emperor impressed by Kakartya Gundyana’s faithfulness, courage and appointed Kakartya Gundyana’s son Eriya, as an administrator of Kurivadi Seema, which was ruled by the Mudigonda Chalukyas.
20) Eriya Rastrakutha as an administrator of Kuruvidi Seema, rule and relations with people of Telangana by the Kakatiyas were started for the first time.
21) At the Young age of Betaraja I, Kakatya Gundyana died. The responsibility of protecting the kingdom taken up by his maternal aunt Kamasani and her husband, Verriyala Errabhupati.
22) Veeriyala Errabhupati reinstated Betaraja I in Kakatipuram after defeating enemies in battle and saved the throne. Expanded the rule(Kingdom) to Koraviseema.
23) Betaraja I has a title of “Kakatipuradhinatha”.
24) Prolaraja I was the son of Betaraja I.
25) Inscriptions Source which gives information about great achievements of Prolaraja I are Khajipeta, Pillalamarri, and Palampeta
26) Prolaraja I conquered the Konkana Mandala, and killed Gonaaraja of Purukuta, and defeated the Bhadranagpuradeeshvara. Kalyana Chalukya Someshvara I impressed with Prolaraja I achievements and appointed as feudatory ruler of Anumakonda Vishaya
27) According to Bilhana’s Vikramankadeva Charitra, Someshvara I sent an army to conquer Chola kingdom under the leadership of his son Vikramaditya. He conquered Konkan, Gangikondapuram, Kanchipuram
28) Prolaraja I killed the Purakuta king in the battle, later he defeated the Kodavati Duggaraju, (ruled near Warangal) and conquered.
29) Betaraja II was the son of Prolaraja I and ascended the throne after Prolaraja I.
30) The khajipeta inscription of AD 1090 mentions the title of Betaraja II as “Vikramachakriya”
31) During the period of Betaraja II, there was a fierce enmity between the Chola Chalukyas and Kalyana Chalukyas.
32) King Vikramaditya VI handed over Sabbi Mandala to Betaraja II.
33) Betaraja II had titles as “Mahamandaleshvara” , “Tribhubanamalla”, ” Vikramachakri” , etc.
34) Betaraja II’s spiritual teacher was “Rameshwara Deekshitha”.
35) Durganrupati ascended the throne in AD 1108 after Betaraja II’s death.
36) Prolaraja II was the strongest ruler among the feudatory Kakatiyas, who ruled from AD 1115 – 1157.
37) Prolaraja II ascended the throne after his brother Durgaraju.
38) Prolaraja II defeated the feudatory rulers of Kalyana Chalukyas, these details are mentioned in thousand pillar temple inscription by his son Rudradeva
39) Prolaraja II defeated Paramara Jaggadeva, ruler of Kolanupaka
40) Along with Kalyana Chalukyan king Jagadekamalla II, Prolaraja II defeated Kanduri Chodas, Tailapa, and Bheema Choda
41) Prolaraja II installed victory pillar in Srisailam
42) Prolaraja II was killed by his enemies
43) Rudradeva was the son of Prolaraja II, ascended the throne in AD 1158, remained a feudatory until AD 1162 and declared independence in 1163 AD. These details are mentioned in thousand pillar temple inscription
44) Rudradeva ascended the throne in Ad 1158 and remained feudatory of Kalyana Chalukyas, till 1162. In 1163 Rudradeva declared independence
45) Sovereign Kakatiyas ruled Warangal as capital for 160 years.
46) The sovereign Kakatiyas rulers fought against the contemporary Hindu rulers like Yadavas, Hoyasalas, and Pandyas.
47) Rudradeva period were divided into two phases ie., 1158-1162 and 1163-1195. First Phase(1158-1162) as feudatory king and the second phase(1158-1162) as an independent ruler
48) According to 1000 pillar temple inscription of Anumakonda, In 1163 AD, Rudradeva declared his complete independence and established large kingdom in Telangana.
49) Muppamamba was the mother of Rudradeva and father Prolaraja
50) Rudradeva’s minister Inagala Brahma Reddy’s Draksharamam inscription, Rudradeva was mentioned as “Anumakonda Rudra”.
51) 1000 pillar temple inscription of Anumakonda gives details like Rudradeva defeated the rulers of Nagar (Karimnagar Naganuru) Dommaraja, Polavasa ruler Medaraju II, Mylingadeva, ChodoUdaya etc
52) P.V. Parabrahma sastry opined, Rudrdeva first defeated Mylagideva, then he attacked Kalachuris.
53) After the occupation of Kalachuri kingdom, Kakatiya’s kingdom expanded up to the banks of the river Godavari.
54) Kanduri Choda Bheema’s capital was Vardhamanapura.
55) Rudradeva conquered the Kanduri kingdom
56) Rudradeva appointed Udaychoda as his feudatory to Kanduri kingdom and married his daughter Padmavati.
57) AD 1202 Jammaluru inscription of Cheruku Bollaya gives detail about Rudradeva that he handed over the vast forest area of Srisailam to his friend Cheruku Bollaya.
58) Rudradeva issued victory inscription(Vijaya Sasana) in Anumakonda.
59) Rudradeva declared war on those who were responsible for the death of his father Prola II, it is known as ‘Palanati war’.
60) Nalagamaraju requested Rudradeva for help and Chalukyas of Pithapuram sought the friendship of Rudradeva which given him a great opportunity for the war.
61) Rudradeva attacked feudatory’s Kondapadamatis. these details are mentioned in Tripuranthakam inscription
62) Yadava King Jaitugi (Jaitrapala) defeated Rudradeva, Where Rudradeva lost his life in the battle.
63) The most capable and trusted person for Rudradeva was Gangadara(Vellanki family). He started his career as an army chief under Prola II. He also worked administration of Sabbinadu. These details mentioned in his Karminagar Inscription in 1170
64) 1000 pillar temple was built by Rudradeva.
65) Draksharamam inscription mentioned Rudradeva as “Vinayabhusana”.
66) In a poem by Neetisaramuktavalli written by Baddena, the author of Neetisastra was Rudradeva.
67) Rudradeva had no children and succeeded by his brother Mahadeva in AD 1195, these details are mentioned in Khandavalli Copper Plates inscriptions
68) Mahadeva was the son of Prolaraja II and elder brother of Rudradeva
69) Two inscriptions of Mahadeva’s period:
a) Sundela village in Peddapalli taluqa of Karimnagar of AD 1197.
b) Inscription in Warangal Fort (Damaged and No date mentioned )
70) Mahadeva fought only one war in his entire life ie., with Yadavas and lost his life in the battle.
71) According to Paithan copper plates of Yadava Ramachandradeva, Yadava king Jaitrapala defeated the Trilingadhipati in war and released young Ganapatideva from the prison and put him on the throne
72) Mahadeva wife was Bayyamba, had son Ganapatideva and two daughters
73) Mahadeva was a follower of Saivism and his teacher was Dhruveshwara Pandita.
74) Recheral Rudra most efficient and capable person. When Kakatiya’s got defeated by Yadavas, he protected Kakayita Rule
75) Ganapatideva ascended the throne of Kakatiya in 1199. He is known as Greatest among Kakatiya rulers
76) After the death of his father Mahadeva in war with Yadava King Jaitugi, Young Ganapatideva became Prisoner. With the efforts of Recheral Rudra, Jaitugi released Ganapatideva and made him a throne to Supre
77) Ganapatideva united Telugu speaking people and ruled more efficiently for a long 63 years. He made Warangal as Capital
78) Manthena inscription first inscription belonging to the Ganapatideva period was in Karimnagar, issued in 1199 AD.
79) Jaitugi as a matrimonial alliance gave his daughter Somaladevi to Ganapatideva and performed their marriage.
80) Ganapatideva achieved victories and was assisted by his army chiefs Recherla Rudra and Malaya Chounds.
81) Prudhvishwara was the ruler of Velanti kingdom.
82) By the time of Ganapatideva coastal region was under the rule of Kalinga Gangas.
83) By the time of Ganapatideva, |Kolanu kings ( Kolleru ), Kotas of Guntur, and Prakasham Konidena Telugu Cholas in Nellore, Kadapa and chengalpattu region by Telugu Cholas, in the Krishna Bank Gudimetta Chagis, in the north of Krishna River in Khammam district Natavadi Kings were ruling.
84) Ganapatideva invaded the coastal region in AD 1201 which was ruled by small ruling families.
85) The 1201 AD, Bezawada inscription issued by Nattavadi Rudra, brother in law of Ganapatideva mentions the army of Ganapatideva won over the army of Prithvishwara. Kakatiya army also invaded the areas like Kota Nayakas of Dharani Kota, Divi Seema ruled by Ayyavamsha rulers and made them his feudatory
86) As mtetrimonial alliances, Ayyavamsha Pinnachoda gave his daughters, Naramba and Peramba to Ganapatideva. Pinnachoda’s son Jaayapa appointed as Gajashahini in Kakatiya army
87) Ganapatideva declared himself as “Prudhvishwara Shirah Kanduka Kreeda Vinodah”
88) Attack on Yadava kingdom by Mallik Kafur resulted in the defeat and death of Shankeradeva who was the friend of Ganapatideva.
89) The chief of Ganapatideva Malayal Chounda took the titles as ‘Dwipiluntaka’ and ‘Divichoorakaara’.
90) Ganapatideva handed over back the Divi Seema to Pinna Choda, to take the support of Divi Seema rulers.
91) Prudhivishwara inscription of AD 1206 from Sri Kooramam, the last inscription of the Ayyavamsh, it informs that Prudhvishwara got defeat by Ganapatideva and died.
92) Telugu choda king Nallasiddi ruled the Nellore kingdom with Vikramasimhapuri as capital.
93) The inscription of Kulothunga III mentions Nallasiddi ruled Nellore as the feudatory of Kulothunga III.
94) Manumasiddi I son Tikka Bhupala sought the help of Ganapatideva in desired to occupy the throne
95) Kakatiya invaded the Nellore choda kingdom in AD 1207 – 1208 and defeated Tammasiddi and put Tikka bhupala as the ruler of Nellore, later Kakatiyas attacked Kanchi the capital of Chola Kingdom.
96) Ganapatideva sent his armies to the Kalinga, army chief of Ganapatideva Indurluri Somaya led the forces to victory, later Indurluri Somaya appointed as the ruler of Kolanu Rastra.
97) Vengi region was conquered by Induluri Somanna. After Aniyanka Bheema, his son Narasimhadeva I’s period Kakatiya army attacked Vengi and Kalinga kingdoms and conquered them in AD 1238
98) Ganaptideva’s friend Choda Tikkaraju died in AD 1248, and his son Manummasiddi II (Veera Ganda Gopala) lost his kingdom in the war with his Dayadis.
99) Kakatiya army killed Bayyana and Akkana the enemies of Manumasiidi.
100) Kaktiya army entered Dradidadesha and occupied Kanchi the capital of Kulothunga (Rajendra III) Chola.
101) Ganaptideva maintained friendly relations with his contemporary Yadava king Singhana,
102) Yadava king sent the army in supporting Kakatiyas during Ganapatideva’s war with the Pandya king,
103) Ganapatideva during his last days fought war with the Pandya king Jataverman Sundar Pandya.
104) By AD 1257, the Pandya kingdom was ruled by Jataverman Sundar Pandya.
105) Jataverman Sundar Pandya, invaded the Nellore Telugu Choda kingdom, which was earlier a feudal kingdom of Cholas, marched with huge army on Manuma siddi II.
106) After the rule of Ganapatideva was over, he handed over his kingdom to his daughter Rudramadevi in AD 1262, because of having no sons.
107) Katama was the son of Malaya Choda the chief of Ganapatideva.
108) Jayapa of Divi Seema was appointed as “Gajasahini” of Kakaityas for doing great service to Ganapatideva.
109) Prolabhima Nayaka was the minister of Ganapatideva, had titles of “Aru vela Dooshaka”, “six thousand Dooshaka” and “Kanchi Choora Kara”.
110) Somamba was the mother of Rudramadevi and her father was Ganapatideva.
111) During the time of Rudramadevi, the Kakatiya dynasty was in danger as Yadava king Mahadeva planned to occupy the kakatiya kingdom in that situation Recherla Prasadaditya took responsibility to protect the kingdom.
112) The veligoti Vanshavali mentions Recherla Prasaditya with the titles of “Kakatiya vamsha Sthapanacharya”, “ Rayapithamahanka” etc.
113) Kayastha Jennigadeva, Kayastha Tripura, Malyala Gundiya Nayaka, Madaya Nayaka, Mahapradhana Kandara Nayaka stood as guards to Rudramadevi.
114) For sources of Ekamrantha’s Pratapa Charitra when Rudramadevi ascended the throne, her stepbrothers, Harihara, and Murari deva rebelled against her.
115) In AD 1274, Narasimhadeva’s son Bhanudeva I invaded the Kakatiyas Kingdom, during the invasion army chief’s Potinayaka, Proli nayaka defeated the enemy army.
116) During the times of Rudramadevi, River Godavari became the border between the Kakatiyas and Ganga Kingdoms.
117) When Yadava King Mahadeva invaded Kakatiyas, Rudramadevi with her army defeated and got the victory, and shunted out the enemies up to Devagiri fort.
118) According to an inscription from “Allapadu”, Yadava King Ellanadeva married Rudramadevi’s daughter.
119) Rudramadevi, as a symbol of victory over the Yadavas, took the title of “RayaGaja Kesari, constructed Ranga Mandapam to the Swamyambhu temple in the Warangal fort.
120) Kayastha Ambadeva made a great rebellion against Rudramadevi rule and is mentioned in Tripuranthakam and Nandaluru inscriptions.
121)According to Tripuranthakam inscription, Ambadeva established his domination over the Pandyas and Yadavas, took the titles of “Pandya Rajanya Priya Preshitha Chandavedanda Turugasthara Viraajmaana Samshoshitha Souhaardra” and Devagiri Rajaprasarpita Praabhrutamani Kanakabhushana” etc.
122) Ambadeva defeated Rudramadevi’s reagent(Guntur Region) Sripati Ganapati in AD 1273 and took the title “Raja Sahasra Malla” and occupied the Valluru under the rule of Pandyas.
123) According to Attirala inscription, Ambadeva occupied Gandikota, Mulikinadu, Renadu, Perakallu, Sakilinadu, Pottapinadu etc, and was ruling from Valluru as capital
124) In AD 1286 Ambadeva defeated the Pandyas.
125) According to an inscription found in village Chandupatla, Nalgonda District, Rudramadevi and her chief Mallikarjuna lost their life while suppressing the rebel Ambadeva.
126) Rudramadevi’s husband was “Chalukya Veerabhara”, of Nidadavolu branch.
127) Rudramadevi had 3 daughters, “Mummadamma”, “Rudrama” and “Ruyyamma”.
128) After Rudramadevi her daughter’s son Prataparudra II was declared as her successor.
129) In kakatiya dynasty Pratapa Rudra II was the last ruler.
130) Pratapa Rudra II handed the army to Nayakas, he appointed 77 Nayakas for protection.
131) In AD 1291, Pratapa Rudra II sent a huge army on Tripuranthakam the center of Ambadeva, under the leadership of Manumagannaya son of Kolani Somana mantra, and Ayyadeva son of Induluri Pedda Gannaya mantra, and in this war kakatiya army got a big victory.
132) After Ambadeva, Murari II ruled independently from Mulkinadu.
133) Prataparudra II sent huge army in AD 1304 to attack Murari II and got victory once again.
134) Kayastha kingdom was merged into Kakatiya’s kingdom and Somaya Nayaka was appointed as Administrator.
135) During the period of Pratapa Rudra II, Kakatiya kingdom faced attacks of Delhi Sultanate.
136) Delhi sultan Jalaluddin Khalji sent huge army under the leadership of his son in law, Garshans I Malik in AD 1295 on Yadava Ramachandra’s capital Devagiri and defeated him.
137) In AD 1296, Garshasp Malik killed Jalalludin Khalji, his uncle and sultan of Delhi and ascended the throne as Allauddin Khalji, ruled up to AD 1316.
138) In 1310 February, the battle between Delhi sultans and Kakatiya’s where Kakatiya’s were defeated, finally Kakatiya emperor accepted the defeat and made peace settlement.
139) In AD 1311, Delhi sultan attacked Pandya kingdom.
140) Allauddin Khalji died in AD 1316.
141) When Kakatiyas gained victory on Pandhyas, Kakatiyas put Sundara Pandya on the Pandya throne.
142) Prataparudra extended his domination in the Dakshinapatha during AD 1312 to 1316.
143) After the death of Allauddin Khalji in AD 1316, his army chief Malik Kafur put Sultan’s son Shahboddin on the throne, and continued the administration.
144) Qutubuddin Murarak shah’s son of Allauddin Khalji first invaded on Devagiri kingdom and immediately he sent his army to the Kakatiya kingdom.
145) Turkey Nobles appointed Ghiyasuddin Tughluq as Delhi Sultan, who ascended the throne in AD 1320. Ulug khan was the son of Ghiyasuddin Tughluq.
146) Ulug khan was made invade on Warangal by his father’s order, but failed in his first attempt at 1323 AD, but the second attack on Orugallu in the same year, Ulug khan got victory over Kakatiyas.
147) While taking to Delhi as captive, Prataparudra II escaped and committed suicide by jumping into the Narmada River. These facts are mentioned in the Vilasa copper plate inscription of Masunuri Prolaya Nayaka.
148) By the death of Prataparudra II Kakatiya dynasty came to an end. Telangana and Orugallu were merged into the Delhi Sultanate Empire and Orugallu’s name was changed into Sultanpur.
149) From Kaluvacheruvu copper plate inscriptions, historians opined Prataparudra’s II period there were eight Turkish attacks, but Muslim historians mentioned only five.
150) In AD 1303, Malik Fhakruddin Juna, and Zaju the chiefs on the orders of Allauddin Khalji attacked Telangana.
151) The Second invasion on Orugallu took place in AD 1309.
152) Khalji’s army reached Devagiri, from the crossing of Basirghar, Kunarbal reached Anumakonda. Attack continued for a month and they occupied Anumakonda.
153) 30-40 attacks of Sultans on Orugallu took place in AD 1321 – 1322.
154) As per Tariq-i-Faristha written by Faristha, in 1320 Khalji’s rule came to an end and Tughluq’s rule began at Delhi.
155) Ghiyasuddin Tughluq was the first ruler of Tughluq’s dynasty. Juna Khan was the son of Ghiyasuddin Tughluq.
156) Prataparudra was defeated by Juna Khan and became captive. After the defeat of Prataparudra, Orugallu’s name changed to “Sultanpur”.
157) Kakatiyas introduced the Manadala system, a new system in the central government
158) Parabrahma Sastry opined, Kakatiyas maintained the decentralization of power.
159) American historian Burton Steins opined, Kakatiyas administration was observed near to “Segmentary state”
160) Feudatories also played an important role in the administrative system of Kakatiyas.
161) Kakatiya rulers took titles such as “Samadigata Panch Mahasabda” , “Mahamandaleshwar” etc.
162) During the Kakatiya period feudatories rebelled only once i.e., in AD 1290, Ambadeva
163) According to the inscriptions and literature of the Kakatiyas the state consists of Seven Limba (Saptanga Samanvita).
164) Contemporary works like Neetisaram, Neeti Sastra muktavalli, Prataprudra Yoshobhusanam discusses the duties and role of the king in political affairs and authority over the administration.
165) The Council of Kakatiyas consisted of Ministers, Amatyas Preggadsss, feudatories, Dandanayakas, etc
166) Contemporary works like Neetisaram, Neeti Sastra muktavalli, Prataprudra Yoshobhusanam discusses the duties and role of the king in political affairs and authority over the administration.
167) The Council of Kakatiyas consisted of Ministers, Amatyas Preggadsss, feudatories, Dandanayakas, etc.
168) “Purushanrtha Saram” was written by Siva Devayya, and he mentioned that All the affairs of administration were divided into 72 Niyoga (Classes).
169) The official who controlled all the Niyogas is known as “Niyogadhipati”.
170) The Kakatiyas divided their empire into Rastra, Sthala, Seema, Nadu Bhumi, and Garma for administrative convenience.
171) Srisailam inscriptions of Prataparudra II, mentioned the name, Naravadi nadu, Motavadi, Pakanadu, Renadu, Mulikinadu, Are Bhumi, Kandurunadu, Venginadu, Velanadu, Natavadi, Eruvanadu, Sakalinadu, Prilinadu are some name mentioned in the inscriptions.
172) Sthalam is the area having twenty-four villages. Anumakonda, Mattewada, and Orugallu together are in Sthalam.
173) Village officers all together are known as “Ayyagars” in Kakatiya administration.
174) Among the village officials of Kakatiyas, ‘Karanam’, Reddy, Talari, Purohitam, Kammari, Kamsali, Vadrangi, Kummari, Chakali, Mangali, Vetti, Charmakara, and Niruduvadu etc, names are found in the inscriptions, they all are given tax-free land for performing their services.
175) Neetisastra and Muktavalli is written by Baddena.
176) As mentioned in the Neetisaram there were four types of forts in the Kakatiya’s empire they are:
a) Sthala ( Land )
b) Jala ( Water )
c) Vana ( Forest )
d) Giri ( Hill )
177) The forts built by Kakatiyas:
178) Military officials of Kakatiyas were called “Nayakas”. There were distributed Villages and Lands for their services.
179) The villages given to Nayakas is known as “Nayakasthala” or “Nayakasthala vritti”.
180) Kakatiyas maintained :
a) Ashwa ( Horses )
b) Gaja ( Elephants )
c) Ratha ( charioteers )
d) Kalbala ( Foot Soldiers )
181) The army of Prataparudra consisted of 1001 Elephants, 20,000 horses, and 9,00,000 foot soldiers. These officials are known as “Gaja sahini” and “ Ashwa Sahini”.
182) During the Kakatiya period the armies were of two types:
a) Moolabalam (Main Force)
b) Sthirabalam (Standing Army)
183) The Main force (Moolabalam) was directly under the control of King or his officials.
184) According to Inscriptions, Mahajanas and Karanam were recognized as a judicious persons
185) The judicial meeting held outside the capital city. In villages, in the presence of ministers, and this is called as “Aprathisthistha Sabha”
186) Kakatiyas declared themselves as Kshatriyas
187) Cholas and Chalukyas declared themselves as “Kshatriyas Caste.”, but many ruling families in Andhra Pradesh region declared themselves as fourth caste i.e., Chaturtha Kulajas.
188) In the Ganapatideva’s inscriptions, Kakatiyas mentioned themselves as “SuryaVamsha Kshatriyas”.
189) Poetess Molla, who belonged to the fourth caste, wrote Ramayana and tried to dedicate her work to king Prataparudra, but obstructed by Brahmins.
190) Veera Saiva preacher Palkuriki Somanatha, abused “Vadiki Brahmins” as karma chandalas, vrata bhrasthas and Pashukaras, To vaisnavas he called them as “Namala Kukkalu (dogs of Namas).
191) Swamy Dandanayaka and Bekkallu Mallireddy called themselves as “Chatussamaya summuddaranalu”.
192) Poet Tikkana Somayaji preached Harihara Tatvamu (The combination of Vaisnava and Saiva Philosophy).
193) Caste Associations:
Brahmin Samaya is known as “Mahajanas”
Vaishya Samayas is known as “Nakara”
“Sanimunnuru”, “Telikiverupr” and “Panchanam” were other Samayas.
194) The 10th and 11th C.E inscriptions mention Ashtadash (Eighteen Samayas) in the society.
195) The contemporary historians and travelers, Barani, Isami, Feristha, and Marco Polo were mentioned about Kakatiyas wealth and richness in their writings.
196) Agriculture land of Kakatiyas were divided into two types:
a) Magani ( Wet Land )
b) Metta ( Dry Land )
197) In the Magani, Neeru Nela (Water Land) and Thota (Garden Land), in Metta, rain-dependent crops like Maize, Mustard Seeds, Castor Seeds, and Sessamam are grown.
198) Land lease was made by an exchange of Tambulam (Betal Leaves).
199) Form Inscriptions of Kakatiya’s, Manthena, Chennuru, Kaleshwaram, Narsampeta, Achampeta, Khammammeta, and Kothgudem were built by them
200) During the period of Ganapatideva one feudatory, Prolaraju, ruling over Chennuru Rajya, to build a new village and built a tank, he collected for every maruthur land one-sixteenth of a rukam, these details are mentioned in Katakuru inscription of Prataparudra.
201) Agricultural taxes found in the inscriptions are Siddayam, Oir Pangamu, Pannu, Kaniki, Darishanamu, Vennu Pannu, Neeruveedi, Ardhayam, Pullari
202) Manthena inscription gives details that Brahmin Manchibhattu, who was a Rajapurohita, donated a wide land, taking permission from the king.
203) Ganapatideva’s Kaleshwaram inscription gives details that the Lord Budhadeva son of Rudra donated four nivartanas of land near the village tank
204) Villages built are Ganapavaram built by Ganapatideva, Mahadevapuram by Mahadeva, Rudravaram built by Rudra, Bayyaram built by Bayyaladevi, Muppavaram built by Muppamamba.
205) In Kakatiyas times, the building of villages and excavation of tanks was considered as a meritorious (Poonya), deeds by the society.
206) Ganapatideva’s sister, Kundamamba built ‘Kundavaram’ village in the Chennuru taluqa of Adilabad district and tank “Kundasamudram’, details found in the inscription near the tank.
207) Ganapatideva’s teacher ‘Visweshvara sivacharya’ purchased forest land for 850 gadyanas and build a village in his name ‘Visvanathapura’ and also a tank.
208) Newly cultivated is known as ‘Podu’.
209) Big tanks of Kakatiyas are called as ‘Samudram’ and these were constructed as a chain system. Tanks constructed in a chain system are usually called as “Golusukattu Cheruvulu”.
Kakatiya’s Constructions of Tanks/Samudras
|Kesamudram||Mahaboobnagar taluqa in Warangal District||Prolaraju I|
|Settikeriya Cheruvu||Warangal district||Betaraju II|
|Pakala Chruvu||Narsampet taluqa Maneru Basin||Ganapatideva minister Bayyana Nayaka’s son Jagadalumum Madi|
|Ramappa Cheruvu||Palmpeta village in Mulugu taluka||Ganapatideva’s army Recherla Rudra|
|Ghanpur tank||Warangal district||Ganaaptideva’s Period|
|Bayyaram Cheruvu||Bayyaram Village Khammam district||Mailamba Ganapatideva’s sister and ewife of Natavadi Rudra|
|Kunda Samudram||Kundavaram Adilab district||Another sister of Ganapatideva Kumdamamba|
|Chounda Samudram||Kondaparti Village Warangal district||Ganapatideva’s army general Mallyala Chounda|
210) The inscriptions mentioned water springs, like ‘Gosugu canal’, ‘Ravipati canal’, ‘Moosati canal’, ‘Aleti canal’, ‘Kuchineni canal’, ‘Bommakanti canal’.
211) The lands which are tilled with ploughs are called as ‘Achukattu Nela’. Achukattu means one type of tax called ‘Ari’
212) Marco polo wrote, Mysolia or Machilipatnam clothes of high quality, appreciable by the kings were weaved.
212) Palanati Veera Charitra gives details that Brahmanaidu erected a panch Loha flag post (pillar) in the Tripuranthakam temple.
213) Guttikonda and Palanatiseema are famous for Iron Industries.
214) The war weapons are locally manufactured, the swords made at Nirmal in Adilabad district, became popular even in foreign countries.
215) The following are important commercial centers of Kakatiyas:
215) The Warangal fort inscription of Ganapatideva gives details about various business done by traders in market yards into Shrines (guilds).
216) The names of Shrines found in the inscriptions are Swadesi, Paradesi, Vaadalavaru, Saasar boora, Tagaramba, Ubhaya Nanadessi, etc.
217) Trade and commerce were centered on the Vaishya community in the Kakatiyas period, and these vaishyas were known as Chettis or settis or Shresttis.
218) In the Kakatiyas period Reddy’s were appointed as Raja Settis.
219) Motupalli was the center of Foreign trade.
220) Foreign trade was conducted with countries like China, Persia, Arabia, Ceylon, and East India Islands.
221) During the Kakatiyas period taxes are divided into 4 types:
a) Land Tax
b) Industrial Tax
c) Professional Tax
d) Commercial Tax
Taxes collected in Kakatiya Period
|Name of the Tax||Rate||Collected from Item or Occupation||Details/Sources|
|Pannu, Pangamu, Kanika, Darshanamu, Siddayam||—–||Land related||Warangal district Matedu Inscription 1310AD ( IAP Wg.No 86 )|
|Ari, Sankamu, Pannu, Kanika, Puttimanika, Netamaggaluvaru, Nuneganugalavaru||Production and Sale right of God’s Share||Taxes on Industries||S.I.I Vol X No 422|
|Srimangali, Netavaru, Gollavaru||1 Chinnam||Professional Tax per weaver and per house||PVP Shastry, Telugu p214|
|Kummari, Ayyagandru, Karanalu, Soldiers||1 Chinnam, 2 chinnams, 1 Chinnam, 1 Addaga||Per house, Per head, per head||—–|
|Addagattu, Angadi Sunkum, Madiga Sunkam, Kolaga Sunkam on oil||—–||Trade-related tax, collected on shops||Levied on Oil|
|Mudar||—–||Tax on salt bags||—–|
|Ellari||—–||House tax 2 rukas||S.I.I Vol IV No 311|
|Wealth Tax||Yearly 2 gadyas 5 rukas||On Cattle: 50 Cows = 25 rukas||S.I.I.Vol IV No 329|
222) The important tax collecting officers during Kakatiyas period were Sunkamanyagadu, Teerpari, Kolagadu and Karanam.
223) Markets of Kakatiyas were called as ‘Angadi’, ‘Penta’ or ‘Adda’.
224) In Tripurathakam inscription mentioned as Karanam and Teerpari tax collectors are Government Employees and Sunkamanyagadu and Kolagadu are private employees.
225) In the inscriptions of the Kakatiya period mention that some taxes like Pelli Pannu, Gandi Sunkam, Puttuper Sunkam, Revu Sunkam, Alamu, Antharayam, Kilaramu, etc.
226) Prolaraja’s Anumakonda inscription begins with the prayer to Jinendra.
227) Vemulawada Chalukyas patronized Jainism, their court poets Jaina scholar Somadevasuri wrote ‘Yashastilaka’ and Pampa wrote ‘Adipuranam’.
228) Sanigaram inscription mentions the donation made to Yudhamalla Jinalaya by Betaraja I.
229) Betaraja II made donations to Jaalna Jaina basadi.
230) Prolaraju’s AD 1117 Padmakshi temple Warangal inscription gives details about Prolaraja’s wife Mailamma made donations for the construction of the Kadalaraya Jaina basadi.
231) Jaina poet wrote Jinendra Kalyanabhyudayam during the Prataparudra’s period.
232) During the period of Kakatiyas, Kalamukha, Pashupati, Aradhya, and Veersaiva were the sub-sects of Saivism.
233) Anumakonda inscription gives details about Betaraja II was the disciple of Rameshwara Pandita, head of Seelamantham in Srisailam. Rameshwara Pandita was a great scholar of ‘Lakuleshwara Agama Mahasiddantam’, and he gave Siva Diksha to Betaraja’s sons Durgaraju and Prolaraju II.
234) The Kalamukha Saivas of Karnataka consider Srisailam as their center and Rameshwara Pandita as their teacher
235) Lakuleshwara or Sakuleshwara was the founder of Kalamukha Saiva philosophy, sources inform that Rameshwara Pandita was the Sthanapati of the Drakshararam temple.
236) Alampur which is on the banks of Tungabhadra River is famous for Saiva Kshetra.
237) Among the Sthnapatis of the Brahmeshwara Matham, Lokabharanam Pandita, Someshwara bhattaraka, Brahmarishi bhattaraka, and Dharindrasi Pandita were great scholars.
238) Vemulawada in the present Karimnagar district was once a great Saiva kshetra in the Telangana region.
239) During Kakatiyas period in Telangana, Dharmapuri( Karimnagar), Anumakonda (Warangal ), Ainavolu (Warangal), Panagallu (Nalagonda), Nizamabad, Nandikandi (Medak), Sanigaram ( Karimnagar ) are important Kalamukha Saiva Kshetras.
240) In Rayalaseema, Pushpagiri near Kadapa was a great Kalamukha Kshetra.
241) Darmasiva was the teacher of Ganapatideva.
242) Visveshvara Golaki matham was the arrangement made for brahmins in the village called “Mandama”.
243) Visveshvara Shambhu established one Sivalaya and Upala matha, on the banks of Godavari River in Kaleshvaram (Karimnagar district).
243) Sivacharya was the raja guru to Ganapatideva and Rudramadevi.
245) Shalakyamalla Kavi works were ‘Udaatha Raghavam’ and ‘Neeroshte Ramayanam’.
246) Gundayabhattu wrote a commentary to the Sri Harsha’s ‘Khandana khanda khadyam’ an Advaita work.
247) Jayapa belonging to the Ayyavamsha, was appointed by Ganapatideva as Gajasahini wrote ‘Nrityaratnavalli’.
248) Nrityaratnavalli has eight prakarnas, it is the standard book to the dance and drama teachers.
249) On the walls of Palampet Ramappa temple Nrityaratnavalli, eight Prakarnas book was carved.
250) Jayapa senani wrote ‘Geetaratnavalli’ on music and ‘Vaadyaratnavalli’ on music instruments
251) The popular Telugu poets of the kakatiya period were ‘Tikkana Somayaji’, ‘Palkuriki Somanantha’, ‘Baddena’, ‘Kolanu Ganapatideva’, ‘Rudradeva’, ‘Ekamaranatha’, and ‘Kase Sarvappa’.
252) Chilkuru, Kulcharam, Patancheruvu, Kolanupaka, Hanumakonda, Polavasa, had the sculptures of the Jaina Thithankaras.
253) Kakatiyas built many temples, according to Pratapacharitra of Ekamarantra mentions that in the kingdom of Prataparudra II there were 5500 Saiva temples, 1300 Vaisnava temples, Mallaradeve had 2400 temples, Bhairava, Durga and Ganapati together had 4400 temples.
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