Modern Telangana History 1948 to 2014
Telangana Struggle and Movement: People in the Telangana region of Hyderabad state began organising themselves in the early 1950s with a desire for a separate state. The States Reorganization Commission (SRC), established by the Indian government in 1953, was appointed to investigate different statehood claims throughout the country. The Commission was presided over by Fazal Ali, Kavalam Madhava Panikkar, and H.N. Kunzru, with Fazal Ali serving as chairman.
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They travelled the whole country in order to hear from people from all different sections of society. The people of the Telangana region filed numerous memorandums to the SRC, expressing their desire for Telangana to be recognised as a separate state.
The creation of the Telangana state was justified by intellectuals such as the late Prof Jayashankar as well as political leaders such as Dr H.C. Heda and Dr Sri Konda Venkat Ranga Reddy who submitted memorandums containing historical, political, economic, social, and cultural justifications for the state’s formation. The Commission presented its report on September 30, 1955, and proposed the establishment of the state of Telangana.
People in Telangana staged a series of protests between September 1955 and November 1956, seeking statehood and the implementation of the SRC recommendations. The protests lasted from September 1955 until November 1956, However, strong lobbying by politicians from Andhra state in New Delhi resulted in the merger of the Telangana region in Andhra state to form the state of Andhra Pradesh.
Before the merger, Telangana politicians demanded a Gentlemen’s Agreement between the two states. Politicians from Andhra Pradesh and Telangana signed the agreement, which included protections intended to prevent Andhra leaders from discriminating against Telangana. The Andhra politicians, on the other hand, have violated the agreement from day one.
Facts of 1969 Telangana agitation
As a consequence of the non-implementation of the Gentlemen’s Agreement and the continued discrimination against the Telangana region in government employment, education, and public expenditure; because of this discrimination, the Telangana statehood movement was started in 1969.
Students increased the intensity of their demonstrations in support of a separate state in January 1969. On the 19th of January, an agreement was made amongst all political parties to guarantee the effective implementation of Telangana safeguards.
The key elements of the agreement were as follows:
- All non-Telangana employees working in positions designated for Telangana residents would be moved immediately.
- Telangana surpluses would be utilised to further the development in the Telangana region.
- Make an appeal to Telangana students to put down their agitation.
However, when more and more students and employees were involved in the statehood movement, the protests became even more intense. Then-Prime Minister Indira Gandhi convened a high-level conference to address the issue of statehood.
After many days of discussions with leaders of both areas, on 12 April 1969, the Prime Minister formulated an Eight Point Plan. Telangana Praja Samithi (TPS) was established in 1969 by Sri M. Chenna Reddy as the political party that would lead the statehood movement in Telangana.
In March 1971, Indira Gandhi called for quick parliamentary elections in the country. Telangana Praja Samithi won 10 out of 14 parliament seats. Indira Gandhi’s Congress (R) Party, on the other hand, won a landslide election on a platform of progressive programmes such as poverty eradication, and Garibi Hatao.
She was reluctant about accepting the demand for Telangana statehood at that point. After developing a Six-Point Formula to protect the interests of Telangana, Sri M Chenna Reddy merged the Telangana Praja Samithi Party (TPS) with the Congress party. The statehood movement continued until 1973, after which it began to fade.
The state unit of the Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP) issued a resolution in 1997 calling for the creation of a separate state of Telangana. Despite the fact that the party was responsible for the creation of the states of Jharkhand, Chhattisgarh, and Uttarakhand in 2000, it did not establish a separate state of Telangana, citing opposition from its coalition partner, the Telugu Desam Party.
In early 2000, Sri Kalvakuntla Chandrashekar Rao (KCR), who was then the Deputy Speaker of the Andhra Pradesh State legislature, began doing background research on the Telangana issue. KCR announced the formation of the Telangana Rashtra Samithi on May 17th, 2001, after extensive talks and debates with a wide range of Telangana intellectuals and leaders in the state.
In order to establish the Telangana Rashtra Samithi party, KCR resigned from his positions as Deputy Speaker and Member of the Legislature. Prof Jayashankar, a leading proponent of the statehood movement, has expressed his support for KCR.
TRS and the Congress Party formed a political alliance in 2004 to win more seats in the legislature. The party gained 26 Assembly seats and 5 Parliament seats. The issue of Telangana was included in the UPA-1 Common Minimum Program. The issue of statehood was also mentioned by President Abdul Kalam and Prime Minister Manmohan Singh during their respective speeches.
TDP MLAs resigned from their positions and walked out of the state government in April 2008 in protest over the delay in the establishment of Telangana.
TRS formed an alliance with the TDP, the CPI, and the CPM for the 2009 elections. The Grand alliance failed to provide the expected results, TRS only managed to get 10 MLA seats and 2 MP positions.
Peak Moments in Telangana movement
On November 29th, 2009, KCR announced an indefinite hunger strike in support of Telangana’s demand for statehood. However, he was detained by the state police and sent to the Khammam sub-jail. The campaign spread like wildfire, with students, employees, and members of civil society groups all joining in.
United Progressive Alliance (UPA) government declared on December 9th 2009 that the process of establishing Telangana statehood will be started.
However, after two weeks of resistance from the Seemandhra leadership, the UPA was forced to reverse course on this issue. Afterwards, KCR gathered together all political forces in the Telangana area in order to establish the Telangana Joint Action Committee (JAC), which serves as an umbrella group for various organisations and political parties, with Prof Kodandaram serving as its Chairman.
TJAC organised a number of agitations and demonstrations, and the TRS cadre and leaders took part in them all with enthusiasm.
Formation of a Telangana State
After 4 years of peaceful and effective demonstrations, the United Progressive Alliance (UPA) government began the statehood process in July 2013, and the process was completed by passing the statehood bill in both houses of Parliament in February of the next year.
Telangana Rashtra Samithi won 63 of the 119 seats in the April 2014 General Elections and formed the government. Sri K Chandrashekar Rao was sworn in as the Telangana State’s first Chief Minister. On June 2nd, 2014, the state of Telangana was officially declared.
Quick to Memorize
Milestones in Telangana Freedom Movement(1948-2014)
September 17, 1948
- Telangana, which is called Hyderabad state, merged into the Indian union on “September 17-1948”.
January 26, 1950
- The central government appointed a civil servant “M .K. Vellodi” as the Chief Minister of Hyderabad on “January 26, 1950”.
First Democratic elections held, “Burvgula Ramakrishna was the First Chief Minister of Hyderabad
November 1st, 1953
- Andhra state was carved out Monday on 1953, November 1st, Kurnool was the capital.
- “Potti Sriramulu” 53 days Hunger strikes, then the proposal of Amalgamation of Andhra State came in 1953.
November 25th, 1995
- Andhra Pradesh Assembly paved a resolution on November 25th, 1955 promising to safeguard the interest of Telangana.
February 20, 1956
- An argument was reached between Telangana & Andhra Pradesh Leaders, then the “Gentlemen’s Agreement” was signed by Bezawada Gopala reddy & Burgula Ramakrishna Rao.
November 1st 1956
- Andhra Pradesh Formation day.
- M. Chenna Reddy started agitation failure to implement gentle man’s agreement.
- Telangana Praja Samithi was formed.
April 12th, 1969
- “Indira Gandhi” 8 points plans were announced but, the Telangana state leader’s rejected the plan
- Jai Andhra movement started.
- Telangana employees complained because of injustice in the government Department.
- Congress demanded the creation of the Telangana state.
April 27, 2001
- TRS formation day.
- G.O – 610, Girligani committee.
- TRS quit the coalition from congress in 2006, and started its own fight started.
- TDP charged stand declared support for TRS.
- Hunger strike by “KCR”.
December 03, 2009
- Kasuju Srikantha Chary is the First person who died for Telangana state.
December 9th, 2009
- Announced initiating process for Telangana state by Chidambaram.
February 3rd, 2010
- Five Member Committee headed by Sri Krishna to look into Telangana issue.
December 30, 2010
- Sri Krishna committee submitted its report and suggested six points.
February 17th, 2011
- Non-Cooperation Movement, which lasted for 16 days with 3,00,000 govt employees.
20 July 2011
- Yadi reddy died near Parliament.
March 10th, 2011
- Sagara Haram, a Million march was organised by Telangana JAC in Hyderabad.
September 13th, 2011
- “Sakal Janula Samme” from September 13th to October 24th 2011(42 days).
September 30th, 2012
- Telangana March
November 9th, 2011
- Konda Laxmanbapuji started week long “Satyagraha” at Jantarmantar.
December 28th, 2012
- Held all-party Meeting, TDP gave a letter regarding Telangana.
July 30th, 2013
- Congress’s working committee unanimously paved the “TS” Bill.
June 14th, 2013
- Chalo assembly rally.
October 3rd, 2013
- Union Cabinet approved the creation of New State Telangana.
December 6th, 2013
- Home Minister send Telangana draft Bill to Parliament.
December 11th, 2013
- President review bill sent to AP Assembly.
February 18th, 2014
- LokSabha passed the Telangana bill
February 13th, 2014
- Telangana bill introduced in Lok Sabha.
February 20th, 2014
- RajyaSabha passed the Telangana bill
- Telangana Poru yatra was started by BJP Leader Kishan Reddy for 22 days.
March 1st, 2014
- Bill received the assent of the President, Published in the Gazette.
March 4th, 2014
- Govt of India declared Telangana state
April 30th, 2014
- Simultaneous Elections were held for 119 member Telangana assembly and 17 Lok Sabha seats.
May 16th, 2014
- TRS won 63 seats in Assembly and 11 LokSabha seats.
June 2nd, 2014
- Telangana Formation day.
Important dates in Telangana
- Telangana Engineer’s day(Ali Nawaz Jung Bahadur).
- Telangana Language day(Kaloji’s Birthday).
- Telangana Vimochana Divas
- Telangana Liberation day.
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